Faculty Profile  Faculty ProfileLast Modified Time: 09:15:04 PM Sun, 4 Oct 2015 
Prof Timothy Lynn Jackson
 Contact Information
Prof Timothy Lynn Jackson
Professor-Music History, Theory and Ethnomusicology
Office LocationMain Music Building, Room No.: 111 
Email  timothy.jackson@unt.edu    Contact Number (940) 565-3748    Fax No: (940) 565-2002   
Keywords music theory, Schenkerian theory, Lost Composers, Nazism and Holocaust Studies   
Graduate Faculty Membership Status: Full Membership-Permanent   
toggle toggle  Professional Preparation
 Degree Major/Thesis/Dissertation Institution Year
Ph.D. “The Last Strauss: Studies of the Letzte Lieder.” Supervisor: Prof. Carl E. Schachter. Graduate Center of the City University of New York 1988
Deutschkurse fur Ausländer, Zeugnis   Universität München 1985
M. Mus.   Queens College of the City University of New York 1982
B. Mus. Comp.   McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 1979
toggle toggle Courses Taught By Semester --- Organized Classes will be uploaded from THECB Data file
SemesterSubjectCourse NumberSectionCourse NameCalculated Semester Credit HoursSyllabus 
Fall 2015MUTH5350001Music Analysis and Performance Download Syllabus
Fall 2015MUTH4370001Schenkerian Analysis Download Syllabus
Summer 5W1 2015MUTH3510001Form Analysis  
Spring 2015MUTH3420002Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint Download Syllabus
Spring 2015MUMH4800001Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Music in Germany Download Syllabus
Summer 5W1 2014MUTH3510001Form Analysis  
Spring 2014MUTH4520002Twentieth-Century Techniques Download Syllabus
Spring 2014MUMH4800001Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Music in Germany Download Syllabus
Fall 2013MUTH5350001Music Analysis and Performance  
Fall 2013MUTH3420001Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint Download Syllabus
Summer 5W1 2013MUTH3510001Form Analysis  
Fall 2012MUTH4370001Schenkerian Analysis  
Fall 2012MUMH4800001Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Mus  
Summer 2012MUTH3510001Form Analysis  
Spring 2012MUTH4520002Twentieth-Century Techniques  
Spring 2012MUTH3410001Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint Download Syllabus
Spring 2012MUMH4800001Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Musi  
Spring 2011MUTH4520001Twentieth-Century Techniques  
Spring 2010MUTH3510002Form Analysis36 
Spring 2010MUMH4800001Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Music i33Download Syllabus
Fall 2011MUTH6680001Proseminar in Music Theory  
Fall 2011MUTH3510002Form Analysis  
Fall 2010MUTH4370001Schenkerian Analysis Download Syllabus
Fall 2010MUTH3510001Form Analysis Download Syllabus
Fall 2009MUTH5370001Analytical Techniques III51Download Syllabus
Fall 2009MUTH2500003THEORY IV20 
toggle toggle  Research and Expertise
Music Theory and Musicology
Timothy L. Jackson’s primary interests center on the music of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and Schenkerian theory. He was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. His studies in music were initiated with piano lessons at age 7. At ages 10 and 13, he spent two years in the Preparatory Division of the Juilliard School of Music (on scholarship), where he studied piano and theory. He is well-known for his work on the music of Richard Strauss, on which he wrote his doctoral dissertation (Ph.D. in Music Theory, 1988, the Graduate Center of the City University of New York). Since completing his doctorate under Carl Schachter, Jackson’s interests have branched out from German music to encompass the Russian, Estonian, and Finnish traditions. He authored the monograph on Tchaikovsky’s Sixth Symphony (Pathétique) for the Cambridge Handbooks Series (1999) in addition to co-editing Bruckner Studies (Cambridge, 1997), Sibelius Studies (Cambridge, 2001) and Perspectives on Anton Bruckner (Ashgate, 2001). With Paul Hawkshaw (Yale), he wrote the composer article on Bruckner for the Revised New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001/2004). Currently, he is editing a volume of Richard Strauss Studies, also for Cambridge. With Veijo Murtomäki, Colin Davis, and Tomi Mäkela, Jackson co-edited Sibelius in the Old and New World: Aspects of His Music, Its Interpretaton, and Reception (Peter Lang: New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2010). Jackson has published on a wide range of topics, especially on theories of form and large-scale tonal structure, the history of Schenkerian Theory, and music and politics, in an array of music theory journals including The Journal of Music Theory, Music Analysis, In Theory Only, Music Theory On-line, The Journal of Schenkerian Studies , and Theory and Practice. His research on twentieth-century composers such as Schoenberg and Shostakovich, has been published in a wide range of journals including 19th-century Music, The Musical Quarterly, Music and Letters, Journal of Musicological Research, and the International Journal of Musicology, and also books published by Cambridge, Oxford, Duke, and Princeton University Presses as detailed below. Since 2000, Jackson has been actively directing the "Lost Composers" Project, which seeks to revive the music of composers whose work was eclipsed or lost as a result of the Nazi-era cultural policies and the Holocaust.He has also written on the intersection of music and politics in the "Third Reich."

toggle toggle Appointments
Duration (YYYY - YYYY or Present)RankDepartment / SchoolCollege / OfficeUniversity / Company
2011-PresentDistinguished University Research Professor of Music Theory.Division of Music History, Theory, and EthnomusicologyCollege of MusicUniversity of North Texas
2005-2011ProfessorDivision of Music History, Theory, and EthnomusicologyCollege of MusicUniversity of North Texas
2005Fulbright ProfessorDepartment of Music Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
2001-2005Associate ProfessorMusic History, Theory, and EthnomusicologyCollege of MusicUniversity of North Texas
1998-2001Assistant ProfessorMusic History, Theory, and EthnomusicologyCollege of MusicUniversity of North Texas
1997Guest Professor  Sibelius Academy, Helsinki, Finland
1997Guest ProfessorDepartment of Music Oxford University
1990-1997Assistant ProfessorDepartment of MusicConnecticut College 
1994-1995Senior Fulbright Teaching and Research Award to GermanyDepartment of Musicology University of Erlangen, Germany
toggle toggle Faculty Workload
Duration (YYYY - YYYY)Percentage TeachingPercentage ResearchPercentage Service
toggle toggle Publications
  Type  Publications per page   
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next>> 13>> 
  YearPublication  Type
The First Movements of Anton Eberl’s Symphonies in E flat major and D minor, and Beethoven’s Eroica " Towards “New” Sonata Forms?
To be published in Explorations in Schenkerian Analysis, eds. Su Yin Mak and David Beach
Timothy L. Jackson
University of Rochester Press
Sibelius Reconsidered
Ilkka Oramo: “Why You Cannot Leave Sibelius Out”
Olli Heikkinen: The Preception of Jean Sibelius’s Kullervo Op. 7: The Social Construction of ‘Finnish Musical Language’
Folke Gräsbeck: Which of Sibelius’s 379 Miniatures are Remarkable?
Kerri Kotta: Redemption Paradigm and Major Mode Composition: Some Remarks on the Tonal Structure of the First Movements of the Symphonies of Brahms, Sibelius and Shostakovich
Tim Howell: A Shadow, an Aura and Some Notes on Light: Re-defining the Sibelius Legacy to Later Finnish Composers
Marc Vignal: Sibelius and Mahler

Edward Clark: The Modern Reception of Sibelius in Great Britain
Lauri Tarasti: Sibelius Societies throughout the World

Timothy L. Jackson: Sibelius and the SS
Veijo Murtomäki: Sibelius in the Context of the Finnish-German History
Antti Vihinen: Sibelius, the Nazis and the Political Culture of Finland

Analytical and Source Studies
Songs and Choral Pieces

Anna Pulkkis: Expressive Transpositions in Sibelius’s Solo Songs På verandan vid havet Op. 38 No. 2, Näcken Op. 57 No. 8, and Vårtagen Op. 61 No. 8
Mart Humal: The Large-Scale Seqence as the Deep-Middleground Structure in Two Solo Songs, Die stille Stadt Op. 50 No. 5 and Näcken Op. 57 No. 8 by Sibelius
Sakari Ylivuori: Transformation of Musical Material. The compositional process of Ej med klagan (1905) JS 69
Ron Weidberg: Sibelius’s Josephson Songs, Op. 57 " The Composer’s Voice

Instrumental Music

Walter Kreyszig: Jean Sibelius’s Fugue for Martin Wegelius in A minor for String Quartet, (1889) JS 85 as Homage to his Teacher, Eighteenth-Century Learned Counterpoint and Viennese Classicism
Timo Virtanen: At a Crossing of Compositions " Sibelius’s Manuscripts for Cassazione, Op. 6
Alex Freeman: Sibelius’s Fourth Symphony Op. 63: Sketch Study and Style Analysis Revisited
Edward Jurkowski: Sonata simple? A Reappraisal of Sibelius’s Three Sonatinas Op. 67
Nors Josephson: Reconciling Opposites

Timothy L. Jackson and Veijo Murtomaeki
Rochester University Press
Anmerkungen zur Oper Arabella Aspekte biografischer Verstrickungen
Program book essay for the performance of Richard Strauss's Arabella in the National Theater of the Bavarian State Opera [Bayerische Staatsoper, Munich], June 2015.
Timothy L. Jackson
Bayerische Staatsoper
Scholarly Note
“The ‘Pseudo-Einsatz’ in Two Handel Fugues: Heinrich Schenker’s Analytical Work with Reinhard Oppel” in
Bach to Brahms. Essays in Musical Design and Structure, edited by David Beach and Yosef Goldenberg (Rochester and London: Rochester University Press, 2015), pp. 173-203.
Timothy L. Jackson
University of Rochester Press
Book chapters
Published obituary/eulogy for Prof. Edward Laufer, “Musae Iovis plangite!” in the Society for Music Theory Newsletter (Volume 37/2), pp. 20-21.
Timothy L. Jackson
Society for Music Theory
Scholarly Note
toggle toggle Editorships
Duration (YYYY - YYYY or Present)OrganizationPositionClassification
2000-PresentJournal of Schenkerian StudiesWith my colleague, Stephen Slottow (Associate Professor of Music Theory), I co-supervise the JournalRefereed journal
toggle toggle Performances
2010Interview on Finnish National TV re. "Sibelius and the SS"To air October 20, 2010HelsinkiInterview
2009Guest Lecturer, McGill University, March 2-7, 2009 for "MusiMars" FestivalMcGill University, Montreal, CanadaSeries of Lectures
2008Short Residence (March 31-April 5, 2008) at the Sorbonne in Paris: séminaire d'études ethnomusicologiques de Paris-Sorbonne 31 mars de 10h et 13h salle D116 Maison de la Recherche, "The application of Schenkerian analysis to ethnomusicology"Sorbonne, ParisSeries of Lectures
2007Two-Day Workshop, A Linear Approach to the Analysis of Post-tonal Music, Freiburg Hochschule für Musik, 20-23 June, 2007Freiburg, GermanyMasterclasses in Analysis
2007Two-Day Workshop in Schenkerian Analysis, Luzern Hochschule für Musik, 18-20 October, 2007Lucerne, SwitzerlandMasterclasses in Analysis
2005Interviewed about “Lost Composers” Project on Italian Radio Radio Interview
2002CBC documentary “Who was Reinhard Oppel?” publicizing the Oppel Collection at UNT, which was broadcast nationally in Canada on “In Performance” on Nov. 13, 2002Toronto, CanadaRadio Documentary
1999invited to lead four three-hour master classes on “Symphonic Form and Structure in Schumann, Bruckner, and Brahms, and Their ContemporariesAula de Musica, MadridMasterclasses in Analysis
1999International Course on the music of Johannes BrahmsBarcelona 
1998CBC, memorial program on the life and music of Alfred SchnittkeToronto, CanadaRadio Documentary
1998CBC, 6-part documentary on the life and music of Sergei RachmaninovToronto, CanadaRadio Documentary
1996CBC, “Who was Richard Strauss?” 5-part documentary on the life and music of Richard StraussToronto, CanadaRadio Documentary
1996CBC, “The Case for Bruckner,” 6-part documentary on the life and music of Anton BrucknerInterviewed in Hartford for Toronto ProductionRadio Documentary
1996- CBC, Individual programs on Max Reger, Karl Amadeus Hartmann, and Erwin Schulhoff for "Critic's Choice."Interviewed in Hartford for Toronto ProductionRadio Documentary
toggle toggle Lectures/Symposia
2015"Richard Strauss and Japanese Fascism"PresenterNational Meeting of the AMS, November 2015
2015“The Company You Keep:” Recipients of the Honorary Doctorates from the 1936 Heidelberg Celebration – Sibelius and Those Honored Alongside Him"PresenterVI International Sibelius Symposium
2014“The First Movements of Anton Eberl’s Symphony in E flat and Beethoven’s Eroica – Towards a ‘New’ Sonata Form?”PresenterFifth International Music Analysis Symposium held in Tallinn, Estonia at the Estonian National Academy of Music on January 8, 2014
2014“Trichordal Voice Exchanges and Cruciform Symbolism in Webern's Canons Op. 16.”Presenter“Laudate eum,” a Music Theory Conference at UNTMarch 29, 2014
2014“The First Movement of Anton Eberl’s Symphony in D minor – Towards a ‘New’ Sonata Form"PresenterVIIIth European Music Analysis Conference, presented September 20, 2014 in Leuven
2013“Toward a Free Composition for Post-Tonal Music”PresenterFifth International Schenker Symposium at the Mannes College of Music in New York City, March 2 2013
2012“Dessau’s Einstein, Ariadne auf Naxos and the Failure of HumanismPresenterNational Meeting of the AMS, SMT, and SEM, New Orleans, November 2, 2012
2010"Sibelius and the SS (Revised)"PresenterThe Fifth International Sibelius Symposium,” Worcester College, Oxford University, September 18, 2010
2010"Schenker’s Comments on Oppel’s a cappella Mass (1926), Gunst des Augenblicks (1925), Mein Herz (1926), and Benedictus (1908)"PresenterSixth International Conference on Music Theory in Tallinn, Estonia, to be held on October 15–17, 2010
2010"Biographical and Analytical Perspectives on Friedrich Hartmann's Song of the Four Winds."Keynote AddressMusic and Exile: North-South Narratives, Goethe Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa, January 27, 2010
2009"Sibelius and the SS."PresenterNational Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Philadelphia, November 13, 2009.
2009"'The Canary in the Mine:' Paul Kletzki and Wilhelm Furtwängler"Presenter"Revival and New Directions? Jewish Arts in German-Speaking Countries" Arizona State University, Tempe, October 5, 2009
2008“Escaping from a Black Hole: Facing Depression in Academia.”PresenterNational Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Nashville, November 7, 2008.
2008“Punctus contra punctus - a Counterpoint of Schenkerian and Weissian Analysis: Hans Weisse’s Counterpoint Studies with Heinrich Schenker.”PresenterFor Session, “Archiving Schenker,” organized by Ian Bent, National Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Nashville, November 8, 2008.
2008"Sibelius the Political, Sibelius and Nazism," guest lecture at the University of Strasbourg, April 7, 2008.PresenterUniversity of Strasbourg
2007“The Urlinie in Hindemith’s String Quartet Op. 22, Second Movement?”PresenterFifth International Conference on Music Theory, in Tallinn, Estonia, September 28-30, 2007.
2007“Strauss contra Mahler: Observations on Program and Structure in the Alpensinfonie.”PresenterStrauss Among the Scholars, Magdalen College, Oxford, 29 June, 2007.
2007“Allen Forte’s Unpublished Analyses of Beethoven’s Pastorale, First Movement, and Bartok’s Fourteen Bagatelles for Piano, No. 8: Possible Integrations of Linear and Set-Theoretic Approaches.”PresenterSixth European Music Analysis Conference, Freiburg, Germany, 14 October, 2007.
2007"Chromatic Collisions"Session ChairNational Meeting of the Society for Music Theory, Baltimore, November 16, 2007
2006“‘A Tale of Two Songs,’ Hindemith’s Vom Tode Mariae I (1922-23) and Reinhard Oppel’s Die Gunst des Augenblicks (1925): Studies of Schenker’s Influence on Contemporary Composers.”PresenterFourth International Schenker Symposium, March 17-19, 2006, Mannes College, New York City.
2006International Musicological Society (SIMS 2006): Göteborg, Sweden.Member of Program Committee and Session Chair, 23 June 2006.International Musicological Society
2005“Paul Kletzki (1900-1973) and the Holocaust: A Jewish Composer and His Stigmata.”PresenterArts and Reconciliation Conference at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, 14-20 March 2005.
2005“Large-scale Tonal Resolution in the Finale of Tubin’s Fifth Symphony.”PresenterInternational Conference Eduard Tubin 100, in Tallinn, Estonia, June 16-18, 2005.
2005“Music Theory Festival”Co-organizer and Presenter, with Jae-Sung Park (Professor, Chair of Graduate Studies and Professor of Music Theory, Hanyang University) Seoul, Korea, November 19-December 2, 2005.Hanyang University
2005“The Fourth International Sibelius Symposium” at the College of Music, January 16-21, 2005.Co-organizer and Presenter, with Lester Brothers (Chair, Division of Music Theory, History, and Ethnomusicology), Ruusamari Teppo, Veijo Murtomaki (Professor of Musicology, Sibelius Academy).UNT, The Fort Worth Symphony and the Dallas Symphony, January 16-20, 2005
2004"The problem of the second group in the first movement of Tubin's Fifth Symphony: A Schenkerian View."PresenterInternational Eduard Tubin Society, Tallinn, Estonia, 2004.
2003"Schliesse mir die Augen beide: an Analysis of Five Settings by Berg, Oppel, Tintner, and Kletzki."PresenterFourth International Music Analysis Symposium in Tallinn, Estonia, April 2003.
2003"Representations of "Exile" and "Consolation" in Hindemith"s Mathis der Maler."PresenterFourth International Music Analysis Symposium in Tallinn, Estonia, April 2003.
2002“Design and Structure in Elgar’s First Symphony.”PresenterInternational Elgar Conference in Surrey, England, in April 2002, University of Surrey, UK
2002Regents’ Lecture,“The “New Teaching” 1928-1935 and 2001-: the Reinhard Oppel Memorial Collection at UNT and Schenkerian Analysis in the New Millenium.”PresenterUNT, November 6, 2002
2001“Brahms’s Auxiliary Cadence Sonata Forms.”PresenterThird International Music Analysis Symposium in Tallinn, Estonia, March 2001.
2000“The ‘Pseudo-Einsatz’ in Two Handel Fugues: Heinrich Schenker’s Analytical Work with Reinhard Oppel.”PresenterNational Meeting of the Society for Music Theory in Toronto, November 2000.
2000“Sibelius’s Brucknerian Models.”PresenterFourth International Sibelius Symposium in Helsinki, December 2000.
2000"The Music of Richard Strauss: A Symposium," February 3-4, 2000 at the College of Music. The conference comprised five sessions and featured eleven speakers from the United States and Germany..Co-organizer with Profs. Graham Phipps, and Michael Cooper, Presenter, and Session ChairUNT
2000“‘Exile’ and ‘Consolation’ in Hindemith’s Mathis der Maler.”PresenterRead at the Internation Symposium Musik im Exil. Die Schweiz und das Ausland, 1918-145,Braunwald, Switzerland, July 2000.
2000“‘Ave Maria, Mutans Evae Nomen!’: Representations of Clara in Symphonies in C by Schumann and Brahms,”PresenterAMS Southwest Chapter Meeting, Denton, April 2000.
2000Delivered three lectures on the Jewish aspects of the Shostakovich String Quartets.PresenterShostakovich Symposium in conjunction with Emerson Quartet, Juilliard School of Music, New York City, February 12-14, 2000.
1999“Reinhard Oppel’s Freie Satz: the Kleine Klavierstueck No. 3 and Bach’s Sinfonia in E minor.”PresenterThird International Schenker Symposium, Mannes College of Music, March 1999.
1999“The ‘Healing’ Metaphor in Schumann and Pfitzner.”PresenterInternational Hans Pfitzner Symposium in Turnau, Germany, June 1999.
1998“The Schenker-Oppel Exchange: Schenker as Composition Teacher.”PresenterNational Meeting of the Society for Music Theory, Chapel Hill, December 1998.
1998“Shostakovich’s ‘Jewish’ Bach and Mussorgsky.”PresenterNational Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Boston, October 1998.
1997“Diachronische Transformation in Brahms Haydn-Variationen.”PresenterInternational Brahms Symposium at the University of Hamburg.
1996“The Wagnerian ‘Embrace’ Metaphor in Bruckner and Mahler.”Presenter"Das Bruckner-Problem" Conference, Freie Universität, Berlin, October 1996.
1996“Dmitri Shostakovich, the Composer as Jew.”PresenterIsrael Festival, Jerusalem, June 10, 1996 and “University Lecture” at Oxford University, 22 October 1997.
1996"Perspectives on Anton Bruckner 2."Co-organized with A. C. Howie. Department of Music, University of Manchester, April 1-4, 1996.University of Manchester, UK
1995“‘A Heart of Ice:’ Crystallization in Sibelius’s Pohjola’s Daughter and Other Works.”PresenterSecond International Sibelius Conference in Helsinki, November 1995.
1994“Aspects of Sexuality and Structure in the Later Symphonies of Tchaikovsky.”PresenterNational Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Minneapolis, October 1994.
1994“The Finale of Bruckner’s Seventh Symphony and Tragic Reversed Sonata Form.”PresenterInternational Symposium "Perspectives on Anton Bruckner" at Connecticut College in February 1994.
1994"Perspectives on Bruckner as Composer, Theorist, Teacher, and Performer."Co-organizer with Paul Hawkshaw (Yale University). Connecticut College, February 22-23, 1994. Conference reviewed by Edward Rothstein in the New York Times.Connecticut College, New London, CT
1994"New England Conference of Music Theorists."Organizer of Local Arrangements Committee, April 9-10, 1994.Connecticut College
1993“The Tragic Reversed Recapitulation in the German Classical Tradition.”PresenterNew England Conference of Music Theorists at Tufts University, Boston.
1993"Voice-Leading in Ligeti's Requiem and Lux Aeterna." Presentation at the "Theory and Musicology Symposium" of the Ligeti Residence on Tuesday, March 9, 1993, with Ligeti as respondentPresenterNew England Conservatory
1992“Bruckner’s Rhythm: Syncopated Hyperrhythm and Diachronic Transformation in the Second Symphony.”Presenter1992 Bruckner Symposion in Linz, Austria
1992“Linear Counterpoint as Redemption Metaphor.”PresenterNational Meeting of the Society for Music Theory, Kansas City, October 1992.
1992“Diachronic Transformation in a Schenkerian Context. A Study of the Brahms Haydn Variations Op. 56a-b.”PresenterThe Second International Schenker Conference, the Mannes School of Music, New York City, March 1992, and (revised version) read at the International Brahms Symposium, Harvard University, April 1997.
1992“Bruckner’s Oktaven.”PresenterNational Meeting of the American Musicological Society, Pittsburgh, November 1992, (revised version) read at International Bruckner Conference in Manchester, April 1996.
1991“The Metamorphosis of Richard Strauss’s Metamorphosen — New Analytical and Source Critical Discoveries.”PresenterN.Y.-St. Lawrence American Musicological Society Chapter Meeting, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York.
1991“Mahler, Strauss, and Bruckner’s Wagner-Rezeption.”PresenterMusic Theory Midwest Conference
1990“Schoenberg’s Op. 14 Songs: Textual Sources and Analytical Perception.”PresenterMusic Theory Society of New York State, 20th Anniversary Meeting, Eastman School of Music, 1990.
1990“Schubert’s Revisions of Der Jüngling und der Tod D 545a-b and Meeres Stille D 216a-b.”PresenterAmerican Musicological Society Chapter Meeting, New York-St. Lawrence Chapter, Syracuse, and Canadian Society for Eighteenth Century Studies, Queen’s University..
1990“Bruckner’s Metrical Numbers.”PresenterMusic Theory Canada 1990 Conference, University of Western Ontario.
1989“The Enharmonics of Faith: Enharmonic Symbolism in Bruckner’s Christus factus est (1884).”PresenterThe Eastman School of Music
1986“Richard Strauss’s Winterweihe — An Analysis and Study of the Sketches.”PresenterRichard Strauss-Arbeitsgruppe, Ludwig Maximilians Universität.
toggle toggle  News
Sibelius back in fashion - Denton Record Chronicle 2005
Lucinda Breeding: Sibelius back in fashion

Last year, University of North Texas launched the world premiere of Hans Schaeuble’s opera Dorian Gray.

This year, the College of Music boasts a host of world and North American premieres, but this time, the work is by Finnish composer Jean Sibelius.

The performances surround another notable event: the fourth International Jean Sibelius Conference. This week’s conference is a collaboration of the College of Music, the Sibelius Academy in Finland and the American Sibelius Society. It’s the first time the conference, which happens every five years, has ever been held in the United States.

Certainly, the bulk of the conference is most interesting to the academics and musicians coming from all over the world. But Timothy Jackson, the keynote speaker for the conference and the director of the UNT Center for Schenkerian Studies, said the music is something of a feast for music lovers in Denton and the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Not only will distinguished faculty members perform and conduct, but also UNT’s best vocal and instrumental students will lend their talents to Sibelius’ symphonic and chamber music.

"This conference and the concerts are two years in the making," Jackson said. Personally and professionally, Jackson has a deep interest in musical discovery. He and his peers at the center have a love of "lost composers," and have made it their life’s work to see that the composer’s music becomes a legacy, through documentation and, finally, through performance.

"Sibelius has never been unpopular," Jackson said. "But we’ve gone through cycles where it is fashionable to like Sibelius and unfashionable to like him."

Jackson characterizes Sibelius as a composer who was socially flamboyant, hosting huge dinners and events around performances of his music and sticking the Finnish government with the bills. He also had his personal demons, specifically an affinity for charming women, a habit that is thought to have continued even after he was married. But as a musician, Sibelius earned the respect, interest and love of musicians because of the richness of his writing. Sibelius’ work "foreshadowed" Romanticism and minimalism in orchestral composition. Jackson also said the composer’s quirks and idiosyncrasies were a part of his vocabulary as a writer.

Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) is thought of as Finland’s greatest composer, and the founder of Finnish nationalist music. Yet this conference’s concerts will focus on Sibelius’ lesser-known and unknown music, much of it deeply personal and intimate.

"I think his music became more and more personal as he got older," Jackson said. "We are doing his two-piano piece Rakkalle Ainolle JS 161 that, for a long time, was deemed too intimate to share."

The Dallas Symphony Orchestra and the Fort Worth Symphony are part of the five-day concert series.

"They are very interested in Sibelius” Jackson said of the two groups. "They have an interest in performing this kind of music and they certainly have an interest in some of the experimentation of it."

Experimentation, in this case, refers to the performance of the first version of Sibelius’

Seventh Symphony. Jackson’s graduate student, Bill Pavlak, provided the first ending Sibelius wrote for the Fort Worth Symphony to perform. The student said the ending isn’t superior to the composer’s final version of ending, but that it does give scholars and musicians a window into how Sibelius wrote.

"It’s a very passionate and grandiose work," Jackson said of the symphony. "I’ve hypothesized, and so has Bill, that it was about his relationship with his wife. The first ending is sort of dark and negative, which might be why Sibelius chose not to use it."

With the exception of the UNT Sibelius Festival Orchestra performance, all UNT performances are free.

For additional information about the 4th International Jean Sibelius Conference, check the special UNT College of Music Sibelius Web site at http://www.music.unt.edu/the/sibelius/ (cq)

Concerts of special note:

2 p.m. today (1-16) The Fort Worth Symphony, under the direction of Miguel Harth-Bedoya performs the world premiere of Sibelius’ Seventh Symphony at Bass Performance Hall in "Two Mighty Sevenths." The performance will feature cellist Alban Gerhardt. The symphony also will perform selections by Shostakovich and Beethoven.

8 p.m. Monday (1-17) UNT’s Canticum novum, the university’s select choral ensemble of graduate students and experienced undergraduates, performs music by Sibelius and post-World War II world premieres of music by "lost composers" Josef Knettel, Arnold Mendelssohn and Heinrich Schenker. under the direction of Henry Gibbons. Half of the evening’s program will be by voice professor and mezzo-soprano Linda Di Fiore performing songs of Sibelius, Mendelssohn and Schenker with accompanist Heejung Kang on piano. Free.

1 p.m. Tuesday (1-18) The UNT College of Music presents a chamber music concert in the recital hall at the UNT music building, located at Avenue C and Chestnut Street. The concert includes the North American premiere of Sibelius’ two-piano piece, Rakkalle Ainolle JS 161 (To My Beloved Aino) by pianists Joseph Banowetz and Heejung Kang. The college also presents Paul Kletzki’s Piano Concerto Op. 22, Slow Movement in the composer’s reduction for two pianos. Finally, bassist Jeff Bradetich performs music for the double bass by Kalevi Aho, who will be in attendance. Free.

8 p.m. Tuesday (1-18) pianist and professor of music at the Sibelius Academy, Erik T. Tawaststjerna, performs a recital featuring the music of Sibelius and other Finnish composers in the recital hall in the UNT music building, located at Avenue C and Chestnut Street. Free.

2 p.m. Wednesday (1-19) pianist Ruusamari Teppo, a UNT student and the great-granddaughter of Sibelius, performs a chamber music concert with an ensemble of UNT students. She and other UNT students perform music of Sibelius and Kalevi Aho in the recital hall in the UNT music building, located at Avenue C and Chestnut Street. Free.

8 p.m. Wednesday (1-19) The Sibelius Festival Orchestra, under the direction of John Norine, performs the world premiere of Sibelius’ Lemminkainen in Tuonela at Winspear Hall in the Murchison Performing Arts Center. The orchestra, made up of UNT students, will also perform Sibelius’ Symphony No. 2 in D Major and Arnold Mendelssohn’s Symphony No. 2. $7, free for UNT students with ID. Tickets are available at the door only.

8 p.m. Thursday (1-20) The Dallas Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Finland’s Osmo Vanska, performs Sibelius’ Finlandia and Lemminkainen Symphonyand Listz’s Piano Concerto No. 1 at the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, 2301 Flora St. in Dallas. $15-$95. To order tickets online, visit www.dallassymphony.com (cq)

Review of Paul Kletzki, Third Symphony and Flute Concertino, Dallas Morning News, 2004
Review of Paul Kletzki, Third Symphony and Flute Concertino, Dallas Morning News, Sept. 12, 2004. Olin Chism

When Paul Kletzki was the music director of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra in the late ‘50s and early ‘60s, few were aware that he was a composer. Now, thanks in no small part to Dr. Timothy Jackson of the University of North Texas and his “Lost Composers” Project, Mr. Kletzki’s music is being heard.

Symphony No. 3 and Concertino for Flute are among the most immediately likable of the composer’s available works. The outer movements of the symphony are weighty and at times aggressive. The lengthy slow movement is moving and most obviously fits the work’s ambiguous title: In memoriam, in memory of whom or what is not stated. The symphony’s playful scherzo is in striking contrast to the mood of the rest of the work. Also playful is the cheerful and endearing Concertino for Flute. The performances by Sweden’s Norrkoping Symphony Orchestra, conductor Thomas Sanderling and flutist Sharon Bezaly are excellent.

Symphony No. 3 and Concertino for Flute are among the most immediately likable of the composer’s available works. The outer movements of the symphony are weighty and at times aggressive. The lengthy slow movement is moving and most obviously fits the work’s ambiguous title: In memoriam, in memory of whom or what is not stated. The symphony’s playful scherzo is in striking contrast to the mood of the rest of the work. Also playful is the cheerful and endearing Concertino for Flute. The performances by Sweden’s Norrkoping Symphony Orchestra, conductor Thomas Sanderling and flutist Sharon Bezaly are excellent.

Colin Anderson, Review Kletzki's Third Symphony and Flute Concertino for www.classicalsource.com
Born in 1900 in Łódž as Pavel Klecki, we know the Pole Paul Kletzki as a distinguished conductor. He was, in fact, a multi-talented musician. As a violinist he made an early advance, aged 15, into the Łódž Philharmonic, a position curtailed by military service, which meant that he had direct experience of World War One. In 1921 having won first prize in a Warsaw Philharmonic composition competition, Kletzki moved to Berlin and had dual success as a composer and conductor. Being Jewish, Kletzki was then forced to leave Germany; in 1933 he went to Italy. As a composer Kletzki stopped writing after 1942, and he never seems to have exploited his position as a highly regarded conductor to get his music performed. Indeed, of the music on this CD, only the Third Symphony’s slow movement had been performed prior to this recording!

Symphony No.3 was completed in October 1939. Lasting 45 minutes, it is in four rigorously structured movements, heavily contrapuntal, and written with skill and individuality. Kletzki’s tight organisation, and a certain functionality of ideas, reminds of Hindemith. While Kletzki is obviously writing a ‘real’ symphony, he also pours a white-hot emotional content into his methodical plan. Those deeply troubled times scorch the manuscript paper Kletzki wrote on: the first movement is terrific in its searing drive and impact and generates great power and sonic substance. The second-placed slow movement, played in Paris in 1946, is more consolatory and seems stained with sombre memories. A sardonic wit emerges in the scherzo, and the work ends defiantly.

Although a piece of its times, there is no doubting Kletzki’s careful and skilful integration of world events and timeless musical forms. Dense and complex this symphony may be, but it is also lucidly revealing of purely musical processes and there is also no filtering of direct intensity, energy and emotion.

The Flute Concertino is altogether lighter, and deftly written. Transparent textures, the flute the amiable leading voice, gentle lyricism and buoyant rhythms add up to an expressive and untroubled work that belies its year of composition, 1940.

The performances and recording are wholly admirable, as is the extensive booklet note by Timothy L. Jackson. Kletzki, who died in 1973, wrote four symphonies. Are they all to be recorded? I have previously heard either No.2 or No.4 (I can’t remember precisely but it is distinguished by the finale including a baritone solo) and was very impressed. There are also concertos for violin and piano. Hopefully this isn’t a one-off Kletzki release.

International Record Review, August 2004.
Martin Anderson.
Paul Kletzki’s life-story reads more like the outline of a soupily tragic novel or a 1940s Hollywood heart-jerker: a wunderkind is buffeted by his momentous times before he overcomes adversity to rise to the top of his profession and international fame, with a secret, internal wound that poisons his pleasure. But it’s true, and it was tragic.
Kletzki began life as Pavel Klecki, in Lódz on 21 March 1900, and showed early musical promise. Composition lessons followed at the Warsaw Conservatoire, where he also studied the violin with Emil Mÿynarski. When at fifteen he joined the violins of the in Lódz Philharmonic Orchestra, he was its youngest member. His first brush with the monumental violence the twentieth century was to unleash came in 1917 and 1918, under enemy fire as a soldier in the Polish army. On the return of peace, he went back to Warsaw and studied philosophy at the University; in 1921 he carried off the first prize in a composition competition organised by the Warsaw Philharmonic and took himself off to the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin.
There his career moved up another gear. He was encouraged by both Toscanini and Furtwängler. Simrock and Breitkopf und Härtel published his music. Thanks to Furtwängler, with whom, indeed, he studied composition and conducting, he became the youngest person ever to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic. ‘In Paul Kletzki’, Furtwängler wrote in 1931, in a letter of recommendation, ‘I recognise not only an extremely talented composer but one of the few conducting talents of the younger generation who really has a great future ahead of them’.
The great future was soon to be compromised. When the Nazis seized power early in 1933, the Jewish Kletzki fled to Venice and, from 1934, took up a teaching post in Milan, at the Scuola Superiore di Musica. But the anti-Semitism of Fascist Italy gradually became more pronounced, and in 1936 Kletzki again took to the road, this time guest-conducting in Leningrad and Baku before being appointed principal conductor of the Kharkov Philharmonic in the Ukraine. He had arrived, of course, just as Stalin’s Great Terror was about to come crashing down over the Soviet Union, and Stalin’s own anti-Semitism and his paranoid distrust of anything foreign soon again persuaded Kletzki to follow the better path of valour. And so, in 1938 he fled a third time, now to Switzerland, where his wife’s Swiss nationality made it easier for him than for the other refugees who sought safety there. During the War he was an occasional guest-conductor of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, and for two years (1943 to 1944) he was the chief conductor of the Lucerne Festival. He took Swiss nationality in 1947.
Kletzki’s post-War career is relatively well-known: years of guest-conducting around the world, with regular appearances with the Israel Philharmonic, and the music-directorships of the Dallas Symphony (1958 to 1962), Bern Symphony (1964 to 1966) and Suisse Romande (1968 to 1970) orchestras. He made a number of recordings now held to be landmarks of the gramophone, not least with some of the Philharmonia Orchestra’s earliest visit to the studio and the classic 1959 account of Das Lied von der Erde with Murray Dickie and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. (There’s what appears to be a complete discography online, at ). He died with his boots on, rehearsing the Eroica with the Liverpool Philharmonic, on 5 March 1973.
But he had long since put his composing pen away. Indeed, as far as he was aware, most of his music was lost. His last works, the Third Symphony and Fourth String Quartet, were composed after he had reached the safety of Switzerland; almost all his earlier scores he had committed to a metal chest which he left in the basement of his Milan apartment block before his flight to the Soviet Union. During the War the building took a direct hit; the chest, Kletzki assumed, must have been obliterated. Since the Nazis had meantime destroyed his printed scores and melted down the plates, all the works which had brought him his first waves of success seemed gone forever.
Then, in 1965, excavations in Milan turned up the long-lost chest and it was delivered to Kletzki’s door in Berne. By now, the story goes, Kletzki was afraid to open it, afraid that the scores would have decayed, and so it was confined once again to the basement; only after his death did his second wife prise it open, to find the music intact.
But was it really fear of finding his music turned to dust that kept the lid shut on Kletzki’s composing past? Could it instead have been an ambivalence about the value of his voice as a composer, especially in the atmosphere of the 1960s? After all, he never pushed the few works he wrote after he left Milan. And both Berthold Goldschmidt and Einar Englund both stopped composing from the 1950s to the 1970s, feeling they had nothing to say to a world that seemed fixated on serialism. We may never know what the underlying impulse was.
Whatever the truth, Kletzki was wrong to keep the lid (quite literally) on his music. A truncated account of the Second Symphony (1928) from Dmitry Kitaenko and Kletzki’s old orchestra, the Berne Symphony, on Musica Helvetica MH CD 99.2 (1997), brought evidence to the modern age that, though Kletzki’s voice might not have been a wildly original one, it was powerful and articulate, and certainly deserved a hearing.
Thomas Sanderling’s new BIS CD of the Third Symphony (1939) and Flute Concertino (1940), both first recordings, apart from the slow movement of the Symphony, makes a very strong case for Kletzki the composer; it’s part of a ‘Forgotten Composers’ project run by Timothy Jackson of the University of North Texas, which promises us the rest of the Kletzki orchestra music on further BIS CDs.
Kletzki was plainly a craftsman of a high order. The textures of the Third Symphony are densely contrapuntal, and are handled with absolute confidence; they have the same linear drive as those of Karl Amadeus Hartmann, but are fuller, more luxuriant, on the way towards the rainforest richness of Matthijs Vermeulen. The music is loosely tonal: it’s shy of committing itself to key centres and freely dissonant, but equally reluctant to let go of some sense of key. The Third Symphony announces from the outset that it will be a no-nonsense affair: a four-note gesture, stabbing upwards and repeated, leads to an angular, free-wheeling fugue that bristles with irate energy; the Allegro con fuoco finale is likewise fiercely and fleetly fugal. The colours are generally dark; even the scherzo manages no more than the grimmest of smiles. The Adagio molto second movement seems to pay indirect hommage to Stravinsky, in particular The Rite of Spring: it doesn’t sound like Stravinsky but at 2’16” it introduces a quote from The Rite that recurs throughout the movement. Since Dr Jackson sees the entire symphony, subtitled ‘In memoriam’, as ‘a musical symbol for the Holocaust’, " he explains his reasoning in his detailed and well-informed notes, I wonder whether the allusion carries an additional layer of meaning.
At seventeen minutes in length, the Flute Concertino is barely a third the duration of the Symphony. It’s lighter in mood, too, though hardly a happy work: it has the nervous, brittle intensity of a joke told in troubled times. Kletzki’s contrapuntal mastery is still in evidence, the lines easier to follow in the thinner orchestration.
The performances are outstanding: Thomas Sanderling’s account of the Third Symphony is the best thing I’ve heard him do on disc, and the sterling qualities of Sharon Bezaly’s flautism," if I can use the word, are now familiar from her growing number of BIS recordings. The Norrköping players throw themselves into the cause, and BIS has given them first-rate sound. A major discovery.

BBC Music Magazine. July, 2004.
Martin Cotton

Although Paul Kletzki is now remembered solely as a conductor, composing was an important and successful part of his life. He stopped writing only in 1942, silenced by the effects of Nazi persecution after members of his close family had ended their lives in Auschwitz. The Symphony dates from 1939, and it’s a turbulent work; the first movement is strongly propelled from the outset, and there is hardly any let-up in the violence. The harmonic style verges on the atonal, thought there’s a strong backbone of tonality: it reminds me of the music of Artur Schnabel, another composer better known as an executant, though it’s much more confidently and colourfully scored. In the Symphony’s slow movement, Kletzki achieves a transparency in the lyrical wind solos which alternate with much denser polyphony in the strings, underlaid with brass chords. The performance has a sure touch, with well-balanced textures and a natural flow, though some of the cruel fugal writing catches the strings out. The Concertino is a more light-hearted affair with a wit and rhythmic bounce that you might associate with Hindemith. Sharon Bezaly is balanced too prominently for my taste, but invests the solo part with authority. Still not easy music, but, like the Symphony, it demands attention: this is the real thing.

Klassik Heute. Benjamin Cohrs, July 2004.
Die dreiviertelstündige, dritte und letzte Sinfonie In memoriam (1939) des Dirigenten und Komponisten Paul Kletzki (1900 bis1973) ist beileibe kein eingängiges Werk. Drei Jahre später verlor er, wie er selbst bekannte, angesichts des Hitler-Regimes und seiner Greuel vollends „Kraft und Willen zu komponieren“. Sein kompositorisches Schaffen erinnert in manchem an das von Wilhelm Furtwängler, nur dass Kletzki seit 1939 ein Jude auf der Flucht war und auch in eigener Sache kaum für sein Werk eintrat, während Furtwängler seine eigenen Werke, waren sie denn einmal fertig geworden, auch selbst aufführte. So ist es kein Wunder, daß die hier vorliegende Einspielung unter Thomas Sanderling die erste ist; vom nachfolgenden Flötenkonzert (1940) konnte Beiheft-Autor und Musikwissenschaftler Timothy Jackson nicht einmal eine Aufführung nachweisen.

Die Beteiligten setzen sich mit aller gebotenen Ernsthaftigkeit für einen Komponisten ein, dessen Wiederentdeckung lohnend scheint. Die dritte Sinfonie ist ein kraftvolles, aber zugleich zerrissenes Stück, laut Jackson gar ein Zeitbild, das den Opfern und Flüchtlingen des Nationalsozialismus gewidmet ist. Dem recht gefällig klingenden Flötenkonzert weiß die Solistin Sharon Bezaly freilich nicht allzuviele Nuancen abzugewinnen. Ihre Flöte hat einen warmen, weichen Klang, ihr Spiel jedoch erinnert durch den fortwährenden Vibrato-Gebrauch an ihren Lehrer Aurele Nicolet. Die klangliche Balance zwischen Solo-Instrument und Orchester wirkt nicht sehr natürlich, insbesondere die Holzbläser des Orchesters rücken räumlich manchmal in unmittelbare Nähe der offenbar zwischen den Streichern links vom Dirigenten plazierten Solistin.

“Conductors who score,” Norman Lebrecht, Manchester Guardian, June 15, 2004.
Another contender, also on Bis, is the modest Paul Kletzki, who died in 1973 and is remembered, if at all, as a Beethoven and Mahler specialist. Kletzki, born in Lodz in 1900, was a student and lodger of Furtwängler’s until he fled Germany in 1933, first to Italy, then to Russia and finally to Swiss safety. Rejected by his teacher, ‘stabbed in the back’, he said, Kletzki lost his composing urge. ‘The shock of all that Hitlerism meant destroyed in me the spirit and will to compose,’ he said, echoing Adorno’s famous dictum that after Auschwitz there could be no poetry.

Kletzki wrote his third symphony in 1939 and left the manuscript in the basement of a building near La Scala, which was hit by a bomb. When his chest was finally dug out in 1965, Kletzki refused to open it, unwilling to look behind a creative door that he had firmly shut. There is no indication that he wanted the work to be performed.

But now it has been, and most evocatively, by Thomas Sanderling and the Norrkoping orchestra in Sweden. Kletzki's symphony is an unsettling work, written in German fugal modes and sonata form that stretch back to Bach and Haydn yet rippling with refugee jitters, the rhythms of dispossession. This cultural ambiguity gives the score an urgency and tension that make it difficult to ignore. Kletzki is as mean as Hindemith with melody, but scary as Shostakovich when the pain burns through the thicknesses of his orchestral textures.

So what was Kletzki, conductor first, or true composer? That’s tricky. Kletzi was an orchestral director of the kind we used to take for granted before jetting about and earning a fortune took precedence over grit and graft. He lacked the glow of charisma and might well have reached his creative limit with the third symphony; a newly recorded flute concerto, by comparison, sounds vapid. But the quality of this symphony is unmistakable. Kletzki was clearly not just a big stick who dabbled in composition, but a serious composer who chose to conduct for a living, and they, as we have seen, are few and far between.

The Dallas Morning News, Olin Chism, Tuesday, March 9, 2004, “Restoring a sound the Nazis crushed. UNT professor hopes to bring composers recognition denied in their time.”
In the 1920s and '30s, a small group of composers in Germany, some Jewish, some not, formed a band of artistic brothers. All were gifted, and some were seen as budding geniuses. Then came the Nazi juggernaut that smashed all of their careers. More than half a century later, a University of North Texas professor is crusading to rescue their work from oblivion. Timothy Jackson's "Lost Composers" project has retrieved vanished music and given it new life long after its creators' deaths. Concerts in Denton on Friday and Fort Worth on Saturday will feature some of the pieces. Dr. Jackson, 45, works out of a UNT office packed with the materials of musical creation. Boxes of scores, old programs and other papers reach toward the ceiling, CDs are scattered about, composers' pictures are on the wall. Less obvious but equally formidable are the uncounted megabytes of musical information in his computer. "I'm trying through my own work and artistic endeavors to undo the damage," he says. "To resurrect their work and to give them the recognition which was their due but which, because of circumstances, they were not in a position to benefit from." There's an even more personal reason for Dr. Jackson's crusade. Many of his mother's relatives died in the Holocaust. Five of his granduncles were killed along with their wives and most of their children. A UNT colleague, pianist Joseph Banowetz, describes him as "a very idealistic person. He's not doing this for the quick buck; he's really involved on a very personal level."

'A lost generation' The most prominent of the lost composers was Paul Kletzki, music director of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra from 1958 to '61. Few here knew that when he was young, he was far better known as a composer, with performances by renowned orchestras such as the Berlin Philharmonic. Other names are far less known. Men like Josef Knettel, Reinhard Oppel, Heinrich Schenker, Otto Vrieslander and Günter Raphael wouldn't get a glimmer of recognition today even from avid concertgoers. John Norine, a graduate student at UNT, has orchestrated, edited and typeset some of the music. "I would almost call them a lost generation," he says. "We know what happened in music early in the 20th century and what happened in the second half, but there is a gap between the wars. This project is providing fascinating insights into the progress of music." Dr. Jackson's search for the lost composers' music has turned him into a detective. He says he's gone around "like a vagabond, from library to library, especially in east Germany, looking for scores that had disappeared." His quest was helped because some German librarians, ordered by the Nazis to destroy the music of Jewish composers and other "undesirables," simply took the material off the shelves and hid it. "I found one of Kletzki's scores that his wife had looked for in vain for 30 years in a library in Berlin. It's an early work , actually, his first large-scale orchestral piece, called Prologue to a Tragedy. Nobody knew where it was. Kletzki himself thought that the score was completely lost." Not every find was in Germany. "I found the only copy of his Opus 10 songs in the Dallas Public Library," Dr. Jackson says. "I don't know what happened. I suspect that he had a copy of it and gave it to someone in Dallas who then gave it to the library. It's the only extant copy of that piece in the world." Dr. Jackson also befriended descendants of the lost composers. One is Kurt Oppel, son of Reinhard Oppel. A Protestant minister in Germany, Kurt Oppel has given his father's music and material to the UNT music library. Some of it, like that of Mr. Kletzki, was buried to hide it from the Nazis.

New performances Dr. Jackson's mission is paying off with performances. Mr. Kletzki's Symphony No. 2 was performed by Andrew Litton and the DSO in 2002. UNT staged the world premiere of Hans Schaeuble's opera Dorian Gray in February. Though Swiss, Mr. Schaeuble studied in Germany, where he was connected with the German composers and suffered discrimination in part because he was gay. A concert in the UNT College of Music Recital Hall at 8 p.m. Friday will feature Mr. Kletzki's Piano Trio in D minor and the finale of the two-piano version of his Piano Concerto. Songs by Mr. Oppel, Mr. Vrieslander and Mr. Knettel also will be performed. The piano trio will be repeated Saturday at 2 p.m. in The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth. A number of recordings are in the works. Mr. Banowetz describes Mr. Kletzki's music as "extremely complex, not atonal but highly chromatic. It's beautifully put together. He knew every trick in the book about composition technique. But more than that, it has strong emotional content. "It's not like some music, which is wonderfully put together, looks good on paper but does nothing for you. This is certainly not that kind of music." The ties that bound the lost composers were a stylistic affinity and the influence of the music theorist Heinrich Schenker, whose analysis of tonal music put him at odds with the developing atonal school of Arnold Schoenberg. Several of the composers were associated with the Mendelssohn Conservatory in Leipzig, a major center of music making in Germany. Mr. Oppel taught Schenkerian analysis there. Mr. Kletzki was in Berlin, where he knew renowned conductor Wilhelm Fürtwängler, a Schenker friend and admirer. All knew each other or had mutual friends. And all had bitter stories.

Harsh stories Mr. Kletzki's early life was a saga of narrow escapes. Born in Poland in 1900, he was almost killed in combat between the Poles and the Russians during World War I. Barely out of his teens, he went to Germany to study composition and conducting, quickly becoming known for his music. Mr. Kletzki was Jewish, so when the Nazis came to power in 1933, he fled to Italy. From there he went to the Soviet Union, where he became the conductor of the Ukraine's Kharkov Philharmonic. But his tenure there, from 1936 to '39, coincided with Stalin's Great Terror. His musicians began to disappear and then Mr. Kletzki himself came under suspicion. Ironically, the Soviets considered him to be a German alien. He returned to Italy but found that Mussolini's regime offered scant refuge. His wife's Swiss citizenship saved his life. With war sweeping the rest of Europe, he fled to the neutral country. The trauma of the '30s and '40s finished him as a composer. He went on to renown as a conductor but never again took up his pen. Mr. Knettel was not Jewish, but he was the organist of a Jewish Reform temple in Bingen, Germany, a post he held long after it became unsafe to do so. His grandson, Dieter Maass, told Dr. Jackson that his grandfather was deeply distressed on Kristallnacht, in November 1938, when thugs smashed Jewish synagogues and businesses all over Germany. Mr. Knettel had supervised the construction of an organ in his temple. It was destroyed two weeks after its completion. Mr. Knettel survived the war, but his decency cost him his career as a composer. Reinhard Oppel was another Gentile composer who suffered. Outspoken and strongly anti-Nazi ("He hated their guts," Dr. Jackson says), he found his composing career shut down. The fact that he had served in the German army during World War I, was wounded three times and was awarded the Iron Cross may have saved him from arrest. He died of natural causes in 1941. Dr. Jackson became interested in their stories through his academic studies. What he calls "the most important day of my life" came in 1980, when he spent several hours with Felix Salzer, a student of Mr. Schenker who had fled to the States from Germany. "Schenker died in 1935, and then his wife was killed in a concentration camp, and many of his students perished in the Holocaust. But there were a few students who managed to get out in time and take some stuff with them, and one of them was Salzer," Dr. Jackson says. A native of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Dr. Jackson is a specialist in Mr. Schenker and Schenkerian analysis who spent a year in the mid-'90s teaching the system in Germany. After teaching in Connecticut, he came to UNT in 1998 as co-director of the Center for Schenkerian Studies. Stephen Slottow is the other co-director. Robert Davidovici, who will play the violin part in Mr. Kletzki's trio in Denton and Fort Worth, finds Dr. Jackson's project invaluable. "The whole thing is incredibly fascinating," the violinist says. "I've heard a tape of the second symphony, and I thought that if we didn't know who the person was, we'd say 'Wow! This composer should be heard more of.' I get the same kind of surprising, positive feeling in playing the trio."

Star-Telegram, Friday, February 6, 2004, Terry Lee Goodrich, “Opera ‘Dorian Gray’ to have long-delayed premiere at UNT.”
Hans Schaeuble’s version of Oscar Wilde’s novel about a man who sells his sould to remain youthful was composed more than 50 years ago, but has never been performed. Denton- Long before Botox injections, there lived a gorgeous fellow who wouldn’t age: Dorian Gray. That’s because after his portrait was painted by a gifted artist, Gray sold his soul to the devil so that the image would age instead.

The tale stems from an 1890 novel by Irish writer Oscar Wilde that was made into a movie in 1945. Now an opera that had been tucked away for more than 50 years in Switzerland will make its premiere tonight at the University of North Texas. The plot is “everything you would want in a great opera: love and drama and a little bit of violence,” said Darren Woods, general director of the Fort Worth Opera. “I’ll be interested to see what the composer did musically, but I can’t imagine this would be anything but amazing.”

Swiss composer Hans Schaeuble adapted the opera from the book The Picture of Dorian Gray in 1948, but the piece was never performed, said Tim Jackson, a UNT associate professor of music theory.

Jackson learned about the opera when he traveled to the Hans Schaeuble Foundation in Zurich a few years ago. He and Christopher Walton, then the foundation’s director, began brainstorming about bringing the piece to the stage. Jackson came up with an ambitious plan to involve UNT in the opera. “It’s pretty powerful stuff, very complicated musically,” Jackson said. The tale of dissolute, murderous Gray will be presented by the 50-member UNT Symphony Orchestra and more than 30 singers in elaborate Victorian constumes. It will be staged and videotaped in the university’s 1,100-seat Winspear Performance Hall in the Lucille “Lupe” Murchison Performing Arts Center. It will be sung in German, with translations displayed over the stage. Jackson has theories about why the opera wasn’t performed soon after Schaueble wrote it. “He was gay, and in Zurich, that was not so good. There was hostility toward him,” Jackson said. “He was wealthy, and artists are supposed to be poor and struggling. And he had gone to Germany in the 1940s, his parents were German, and many thought he was a Nazi sympathizer.” Jackson said it’s time to focus on the man’s music, not his personality. “In places, it’s heartbreakingly beautiful,” said Stephen Dubberly, music director of UNT Opera Theatre, who will conduct the orchestra. Other times, it is violent. When an actress falls in love with Gray and he spurns her, she poisons herself; he ruins many other lives, too, said Paula Homer, stage director of UNT Opera Theatre. As the portrait turns ugly to reflect Gray’s corruption, he hides it in an attic. He grows to regret his sins when he wants to marry the artist’s niece, but the artist, Basil Hallward, forbids it. A musical climax occurs when a frustrated Gray murders the artist. At the opera’s end, Gray knifes the picture. The lights grow dim and the painting is transformed into a youthful image; Gray dies, his face wrinkled and worn.

Denton Record-Chronicle Thursday, February 5, 2004, Lucinda Breeding
Without the work of three dedicated faculty members at the University of North Texas, Hans Schaeuble’s magnum opus, a full-length opera masterpiece based on Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, might have stayed tucked away at a Swiss foundation for another generation or longer.

Two programs at the UNT College of Music decided that they had enough blood, sweat and tears to stage the world premiere of a sweeping, dark opera. The piece premieres Friday at the Murchison Performing Arts Center. The two programs, the Center for Schenkerian Studies and the UNT Opera Theatre, have staged the opera with the help of a $64,000 grant from the Schaeuble Foundation in Switzerland. Timothy L. Jackson, the co-director of the Center for Schenkerian Studies at UNT, said he agreed to direct the production of a full orchestral score and its vocal parts for the opera. He and graduate students used photocopies of Schaeuble’s original manuscripts, held by the foundation, to do that. "It was an extremely academic pursuit," Jackson said. "We had to produce a score and parts that could be used for performance, which is a very big job. It’s very heavily orchestrated, very intricate and complicated, so there are a lot of possibilities for mistakes. This was Schaeuble’s handwritten score, not a typed score, so we were reading his handwriting and trying to figure out what Schaeuble wrote." Stephen Dubberly, the musical director for "Dorian Gray" and the opera theater, took part in that process, and called it "an editorial and investigative process." The result, Dubberly said, is a satisfying opera, an entertaining treatment of Wilde’s classic. "There’s a combination of dramatic energy and lyrical beauty," he said. "Some of the music might sound modern, but it’s arresting. Then there is some music that will sound very Romantic. But it all has a dramatic purpose." "Dorian Gray" is the story of a vain young aristocrat who forfeits his soul so that he may remain young, but is tormented to see the consequences of his sins reflected in his painted portrait. The opera might have lain dormant at the foundation, which lobbies for young musicians to study and perform Schaeuble’s music. "A professional opera company, even a large one, wouldn’t be able to afford to do a premiere like this," Jackson said. "Just to bring in the singers would probably cost more than the grant the foundation gave us."

It didn’t help that there was a lot of scholarship involved in making the score performance-ready, he said. He agreed to take on "Dorian Gray" because it was just the sort of project the center would champion. The Center for Schenkerian Studies promotes the music theory of Heinrich Schenker, a 20th-century music theorist, but it also revives the work of composers connected, either directly or indirectly, to the "Schenkerian School," many of whom were neglected or oppressed because they were Jewish, had anti-Nazi political leanings or were homosexual. Schaeuble was one such neglected composer associated with Schenker’s approach to music, Jackson said. "Because Schaeuble was rich and homosexual, he wasn’t cool," Jackson said. "Most of the music of the [Leipzig] conservatory is forgotten, though, for a lot of reasons. I think maybe one of the reasons Schaeuble wasn’t cool is because the music is pretty. It was before neo-Romanticism, so he was sort of a conservative. I think Schaeuble was composing music people would have wanted to listen to if they could have." Schaeuble had a legitimate music education. He studied pianoforte and composition at the Leipzig Conservatory from 1927-31 before traveling to Berlin and finally settling in Zurich. It was there that he became an independent composer. He died in 1988. A few of his pieces have been recorded, and the Center for Schenkerian Studies has taken on the opera as part of a larger "lost composers" project. The center will record the full opera for an upcoming "Dorian Gray" CD, and the opera theatre is producing a DVD of the performance after the premiere. Dubberly was set to lead the musicians into the project last year, when the Jackson discovered the foundation had given them the wrong vocal scores. Schaeuble had revised them, and UNT received the revision shortly before they were scheduled to open. Two performances were planned with a chamber orchestra. Dubberly said the programs wanted to perform the composer’s latest revision of the opera. "We wanted to honor that," he said. "Schaeuble revised almost obsessively. He re-worked much of his music, and he revised it over and over again. And it seems he got better at combining those elements of music and theater. He really tightened the score up and made it quite accessible." Now, the piece premieres in Winspear Hall, the largest space in the Murchison, with the UNT Symphony Orchestra. Paula Homer, the director of the opera theater, said creating the first production of an opera is a rare experience. Generally, companies are producing operas that have been around for centuries, with hundreds of performances and multiple recordings of the music. The students involved also are participating in an uncommon experience. Tenor Brain Nedvin, a doctoral student in the UNT opera program originates the title role. Baritones John Sauvey and Brian Shadowens originate the roles of Lord Henry Wotten and Basil Hallward, respectively. Sopranos Karen Kanakis and Laurie Soph portray Dorian’s love interests. "Since we just now started working with the orchestra in rehearsals, I’m hearing the score for the first time, and it’s thrilling to hear that," Homer said. "This is a bit like climbing a very big mountain. It’s like that for the students, the singers, especially Brian. We’ve been working on this for just two years, straight, and I’m delighted with their work."

Editorial, Denton Record Chronicle, Saturday, February 7, 2004
Last night’s world premiere of the Hans Schaeuble opera Dorian Gray was a triumph for the University of North Texas Opera Theater, and it was important, too, for the rest of us folks in Denton who don’t know an aria from an Airedale.

Serious music in general and opera in particular are the victims of a lot of reverse snobbery from those of us who remain, for one reason or another, impervious to its charms. We tend to forget, if we ever knew, that many enduring popular-music melodies were swiped directly from the classics. We cannot know if any melodies from Schaeuble’s Dorian Gray will ever become popular standards, but we do know that they have a chance, now that the opera has been performed at last….

UNT’s Center for Schenkerian Studies has dedicated itself to the rediscovery of suppressed artists such as Schaeuble, and with the center’s help and support, and a $64,000 grant from a Swiss foundation dedicated to promoting and preserving Schaeuble’s work, the UNT college of Music was able to take on the ambitious project of producing Dorian Gray for the first time ever, with full orchestration, costumes, and sets.

Opera may not be everyone’s cup of Shiner Bock, but dusting off a neglected musical masterpiece and bringing it to the attention of the world is the kind of thing a great university does. Only last year, two UNT mathematicians solved a thorny theoretical problem that had stumped their colleagues the world around for more than 50 years. Solving the Steinhaus lattice problem didn’t make the mathematical world tremble, but it added to the body of knowledge about the intriguing world of numbers, and UNT’s Stephen Jackson and Dan Mauldin were the ones who did it. Much the same thing happened last night in the Murchison Performing Arts Center’s Winspear Hall. Thanks to the dediation and skill of student and faculty musicians at the University of North Texas, a suppressed artwork was saved from oblivion, and once-neglected music filled the night.

Dallas Morning News, Saturday, February 7, 2004, Olin Chism
Dorian Gray found the secret of youth again on Friday night, but alas it wasn't eternal. An operatic version of Oscar Wilde's twist on the Faust legend came dramatically to life at the University of North Texas after lying asleep for more than 50 years. The composer, Hans Schaeuble, was once a leading light of Swiss music. He wrote Dorian Gray in the years immediately following World War II but was never able to get it performed, though he lived until 1988. So UNT's performance was the world premiere. It says something about the caliber of the area's schools of music that, although this was a student production and the music was unfamiliar and difficult, it had an air of professionalism about it. The three most prominent singers, Brian Nedvin in the title role and John Sauvey and Brian Shadowens as his closest associates, had mature voices and good theatrical instincts. The large orchestra under the direction of Stephen Dubberly was exceptional. There are professional companies that wouldn't have gotten this sound. Less prominent roles were generally well done. This was clearly a budget production, but performances were intense enough to hold attention and engage the emotions so that elaborate sets were really not needed. Dorian Gray is based on Oscar Wilde's novella The Picture of Dorian Gray. A handsome young man, on seeing his newly painted portrait, laments the prospect that he will age while his portrait will remain eternally youthful. He says he'd give his soul if only the reverse were true. He's granted his wish and spends the following years ruining lives with his dissolute behavior while his portrait, kept hidden, ages. Finally, in a fit of remorse about his wasted life, he slashes his portrait, which promptly regains its youth as he suddenly ages and dies. It's a magnificent story, and Schaeuble's opera does it justice as a piece of theater. However, it's not clear that the opera's unquestionable effectiveness owes as much to the music as to Schaeuble's well-crafted structure and libretto. Musically, the opera sounds like a between-the-wars creation. Schaeuble was a disciple of Paul Hindemith, so this avoids Schoenbergian tendencies while creating a sense of angst through a kind of declamatory vocal line and an orchestral texture that creates atmosphere rather than sings. Only rarely does Schaeuble relent with something approaching a conventional melodic line. UNT's performance, in Winspear Performance Hall of the Murchison Performing Arts Center, was handicapped somewhat by the fact that the orchestra was placed onstage behind the singers, who therefore never had a direct view of the conductor. Apparently this was done to meet the requirements of a recording that was being made. While this may have worked well for the microphones, for the audience it resulted in a prominent orchestral sound that occasionally covered the singers. It also left an unusually thin playing space. The one-time performance was a collaboration among the UNT School of Music, the UNT-based Center for Schenkerian Studies and the Hans Schaeuble Foundation of Zurich, Switzerland.

The Globe and Mail, (Canada's National Newspaper) Nov. 8, 2003, Shawna Richer: “Buried tunes to be heard at last."
Classical music scores buried underground for safekeeping by their composers during the Holocaust and presumed lost for decades will be brought to life, some for the first time, when they are performed this weekend in Halifax, [Nova Scotia, Canada]. Tim Jackson, a musicologist at the University of North Texas and originally a Bluenoser, has worked to save and make public the music of well-known Jewish composers Paul Kletzki and Carlo Taube, and Nazi-antagonist Reinhard Oppel, whose work and reputations were blossoming in 1933 when the Nazis, who forbade Jewish artists from performing came to power. “This [music] has literally been in a time capsule,” Dr. Jackson said. “No one knew of its existence, especially the Oppel music. It had disappeared from public consciousness. Some of it was published but very little.” Mr. Oppel was a German composer and music historian who taught at the renowned Leipzig Conservatory and a close colleague of Heinrich Schenker, who was Jewish and widely considered the Albert Einstein of music theory. Mr. Schenker, Dr. Jackson’s primary area of study that led to his interest in Mr. Oppel, was boycotted by the Nazi regime. Mr. Oppel was considered guilty by association. Mr. Kletzki’s parents and sister were murdered by the Nazis. “If you were Jewish, that was it,” Dr. Jackson said. “Your music would be banned. You had to flee. The Nazis burned the plates from Kletzki’s music and destroyed the full score of his Piano Concerto. “Oppel was persona non grata. His widow was concerned about his stuff, and they couldn’t take it with them, so they buried it….in a big chest. Everything that was in there survived amazingly well. But if it wasn’t buried, it didn’t survive….It boggles the mind to think what else might be out there. I’m going to dig it up, as much as I can. But it’s been a long hard journey. It’s difficult to get music played that nobody’s heard of or knows about. But I just kept chipping away. Slowly but surely there’s been interest.”

The Halifax Herald Limited, November 9, 2003, Stephen Pederson: “Unearthing masterful music.”
Halifax-born Timothy Jackson, associate professor of music theory in the College of Music at the University of North Texas, has spearheaded efforts to produce playable editions of music disinterred in former East Germany, as well as in Milan, where a box of Kletzki's music had been buried since the Nazi occupation of Italy. It was only discovered in 1965 during excavations of Kletzki's former apartment building. He was known in Italy as a conductor at the nearby La Scala Opera House. Jackson first heard of Oppel during his research into the papers of Heinrich Schenker, a music theorist who has been called the Einstein of Music Theory for his revolutionary approach to music analysis. Jackson founded and heads the Centre for Schenkerian Studies at North Texas. "Anyone who studies music will run into Schenker at some time or other," Jackson says. "He had an incredible influence. Schenker thought music composition was in decline, that Brahms was the last great composer. But Oppel was one of his contemporary composers that Schenker admired." A chance meeting of Jackson with the agent of Halifax's Blue Engine String Quartet led to tonight's Lost Composers concert in Pier 21. Pianist Peter Allen and soprano Sung Ha Shin Bouey, singing lieder by Oppel, will also appear on the program with the Blue Engine and cellist Walt, in music by Oppel, Paul Kletzki, and Carlo Taube. Jackson is working on resurrecting the music of unjustly neglected composers like Kletzki, Oppel and Taube. "What I am trying to do is to get the music played so people can find out what it sounded like," he says. Jackson will give a pre-concert talk about the music at 7 p.m. Sunday night in Pier 21. Rev. Kurt Oppel will be in attendance.

The Halifax Herald Limited, November 10, 2003, Stephen Pederson: “Lost Composers brought to life.”
“Lost Composers brought to life.” There was an air of romance in Heritage Hall at the Lost Composers Concert Sunday night in Pier 21. Music lost to sight for decades, buried in the ground, hidden away in the basement of an apartment building, dug out of a German garden and excavated from an Italian bomb site, finally seing the light and being played for the first time on Nov. 9, 2003, in Halifax. As exciting as a detective story. But there was sorrow too, and bitterness. On Nov. 9, 1938, Nazi thugs took to the street and attacked Jewish stores, smashing windows, beating Jews up, hauling them away, a night of horror known to the history of infamy as Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass….The music began with Kletzki’s String Quartet in A minor, Op. 1, the first [post-war] world premiere on the program. It is a solemn, tangled, at times even turgid work putting me in mind of Max Reger’s uncompromisingly intense music. The final Vivo, vigorous and well crafted and built on an aphoristic corkscrew theme, took us to the edge of what I thought would be a final fugue, but turned back at the last moment. Five of Oppel’s songs, echoing the harmonies of Richard Strauss, were sung by Shin-Bouey most exquisitely, sensitiviely accompanied by Allen. Shin-Bouey fairly lit up the hall with artistic ardour. She ended her set with the only surviving work of Carlo S. Taube, Ein Judisches Kind, he and his family were all murdered in the Holocaust, a simple folk song but incomparably moving in Shin-Bouey’s interpretation. Allen returned with cellist Shimon Walt to play another premiere, Oppel’s Cello Sonata, an early work with more than a hint of sonatina about it, but much more developed. Walt sings on his cello, Allen catching the wave of his lyricism with instinctive grace. The final work, Oppel’s String Quartet No. 2 in D minor, also a world premiere, proved classical in the clarity and balance of its musical design. The Blue Engine String Quartet caught its light elegance like netting a rare butterfly on the wing.

The Dallas Morning News, September 29, 2002, Scott Cantrell: “DSO calls on former conductor: a favorite conductor returns in his music”
“His [Kletzki’s] music was played all over Germany, in the best venues, by famous people,” says Timothy Jackson, associate professor of music theory at the University of North Texas. It was Dr. Jackson’s interest in unjustly neglected composers that led him to Mr Kletzki, and prompted his one-man campaign to get the DSO to play a piece by its former conductor….”The symphony is tonal,” Dr. Jackson says, “but it’s a very advanced tonality.” He likens it to the Second String Quartet of Arnold Schoenberg, which pushes chromaticism to the edge of atonality. “His musical language evolved radically in just three years,” Dr. Jackson says of Mr. Kletzki. “We just recorded some songs he composed at the age of 23, and they’re basically in the romantic, traditional tonal mode. They sound like late Strauss. But there’s one song we did from a 1926 collection, and it’s a mélange of tonal and post-tonal languages.” Mr. Kletzki composed one more symphony, in 1939, as a memorial to the sufferings in Nazi Germany. Dr. Jackson is working to get it performed and recorded by the Swedish label BIS.

The Fort Worth Star Telegram, October 3, 2002, Gigi Sherrell: “Buried Treasure."
Most of Paul Kletzki’s music was lost when he fled Hitler. Now his Symphony No. 2 finds new life in Dallas.” “My mission is to bring lost music back,” says Timothy Jackson, associate professor of music theory at the University of North Texas. “There are a whole group of composers who were lost in World War II. It’s important to find them and bring them back to public awareness, because of the history, and because they are high-quality, important composers….Everything he [Kletzki] wrote up through 1933 was published,” Jackson says. “And all of it was lost. When the Nazis took over, they created a list of proscribed composers. Because Kletzki was Jewish, he was on the list, so his publishers destroyed all his printed music and melted down their printing plates….In 1939, when Kletzki was a refugee in Switzerland, he wrote his third symphony, which he subtitled ‘In Memoriam,’” Jackson says….”I found an article where he was quoted as saying that the Holocaust, and the loss of his music, the fact that his publisher had melted his plates, killed in him the desire to create music,” Jackson says. “He conducted like a composer,” Jackson reports. “He had an unbelievable reputation as a conductor. The reviewers loved him, and he continued to conduct and record widely.” Then, in 1965, the all-but-unbelievable happened. A construction crew working near La Scala found the trunk with Kletzki’s music. “That area had been heavily bombed during the war, and he had assumed that the trunk was lost, but they were able to return it to him,” Jackson says. But Kletzki couldn’t bring himself to open the trunk. “He said that he had lost his music once, and he was afraid to lose it again,” Jackson says. “He was afraid the paper might have turned to dust inside the turnk or been destroyed by insects or water. He stored the trunk in his basement and never opened it….” Kletzki’s wife has spent the last 30 years searching for his music, and she has found an ally in Jackson….Jackson brought the work to the attention of the Dallas Symphony, and now Kletzki’s music has been reborn. “He was a very human person, and he had a great, humane side to his character,” cellist McShane says. “The older players who played with him really revered him, and I thought he was wonderful. I’m looking forward to playing his music.”

The New York Times, July 26, 1992, Robert Sherman: “Richard Strauss’s ‘Four Last Songs’ Turn Out to Be Five.”
About 40 recordings and countless concert performances attest to the enduring worth and popularity of Richard Strauss’s “Four Last Songs.” Now as the result of the research of Timothy Jackson, a professor at Connecticut College, it turns out that the four songs are really five. From studies of the Strauss notebooks and manuscripts, Dr. Jackson determined that the composer, before finishing the four new songs he was writing in 1946-48, returned to a song he had created more than half a century before, on a connected text, giving it the same kind of orchestral setting he was providing for the others. Dr. Jackson maintains that further musical and text indications make it clear that Strauss intended the cycle to include all five pieces. “There was unfinished business in the earlier song’s lines about overwhelming emotional need that Strauss had to take care of before he met his own death, which he knew was soon to come.” The composer died in 1949, however, before any of these orchestral songs had been performed, and it was his editor who decided to strip away the earlier piece, and issue only four “Last Songs.”

The Day, August 2, 1992, Milton Moore: “Strauss’s ‘Last Orchestral Songs’ highlight lush midsummer sounds.”
The lush and luminous tones of The Connecticut Orchestra playing Richard Strauss, the silvery soprano voice of Dinah Bryant singing a unique grouping of his songs, and the soft salt air off the Sound created a midsummer dream of an evening at Harkness Memorial Park in Waterford Saturday….But the star of the evening and the high point of the concert were Ms. Bryant and Strauss’s 1948 “Last Orchestral Songs,” renamed by Connecticut College professor Timothy L. Jackson to fit his well-researched theory that the group includes five, not the standard four, songs. His theory, which flies in the face of 42 years of performances of the “Four Last Songs,” was brought to life Saturday by the first performance of the five-song cycle, an event that captured the attention of National Public Radio.

The Day, August 2, 1992, “Concert to be broadcast nationwide Thursday.”
Saturday’s “world premiere” at Summer Music of a work by Richard Strauss has caught the attention of the nation’s top-rated classical music radio show, which taped the concert at Harkness Memorial Park for nationwide broadcast Thursday. “’The Last Four Songs’ are one of his best-known pieces, one of his crowning moments,” said Benjamin Roe, music producer for National Public Radio’s “Performance Today.” “So when a scholar says there are five songs, we sit up and take notice.” Roe noted in a telephone interview from his Washington, D.C. office that many scholars write theses outlining unusual musical premises, but few actually get them performed by a symphony orchestra. The focus of this national attention, which will culminate with the first-ever radio broadcast of a Summer Music concert, is the musical sleuthing by Connecticut College professor Timothy Jackson.

Newsday, August 17, 1992, Tim Page.
The “Four Last Songs” of Richard Strauss, four lushly orchestrated settings of late Romantic poetry by Hermann Hesse and Gustave von Eichendorff written when the composer was in his 80s in 1948, have long been acknowledged as some of the century’s most affecting music. Now the musicologist Timothy L. Jackson has suggested that the four should really be five, that Strauss may have intended an orchestration of his early song “Ruhe, meine Seele!” to immediately precede “Im Abendrot” in performances of what Jackson calls the “Last Orchestral Songs.”

The New York Times, August 25, 1992, Allan Kozinn,“The World of Richard Strauss, Murky and Not So Honorable.”
The rest of Strauss’s response [to Nazism] is embodied in the “Four Last Songs.” At this afternoon’s concert, these were the focus of a scholarly recasting that expanded the goup to five, under the new name “Last Orchestral Songs.” Timothy Jackson, a musicologist, presented persuasive evidence for his view that Strauss meant his 1948 orchestration of his early (1894) song “Ruhe, meine Seele!” to be presented as a prelude to the set’s finale, “Im Abendrot.”

The (London) Times Literary Supplement, November 26, 1993, Arnold Whittal: “Rosenkavalier and after. Did Strauss really retreat from modernism?”
Timothy L. Jackson, who writes on Metamorphosen (Duke) and the late orchestral songs (Princeton), offers a particularly successful blend of source study and theory-based analysis which, in the case of the Metamorphosen, is contextualized (as the “new musicology” requires) to produce a convincing reinterpretation of Strauss’s most elaborate late work. Jackson argues not only that Metamorphosen originated in a setting of Goethe’s “Niemand wird sich selber kennen” and not, as commonly assumed, in the waltz Muenchen, but also that “in Strauss’s essentially tragic view….the end result of metamorphosis is not man’s attainment of the divine but his descent into beastiality.” Jackson’s bold adaptation of Schenkerian techniques to support his reading of the deeper musical structures that underpin his interpretation provokes plenty of questions and counter-arguments. Moreover, there is an element of paradox in the way he seeks to equate the music’s achievement of convincing closure with his thesis that the work’s philosophical content concerns “man’s ultimate defeat.” It may well be the case that the composition’s concluding reference to the funeral march of Beethoven’s “Eroica” Symphony represents Strauss repudiating Hitler, as Beethoven repudiated Napoleon. Yet that repudation itself, in combination with the purely artistic triumph that Metamorphosen represents, might indicate that “man’s defeat” is relative, not absolute: a tragic but not nihilistic ending. There is much more to be said about Metamorphosen, but Jackson’s essay is an outstanding piece of work, even more so than his Princeton contribution, arguing that the orchestration of “Ruhe, meine Seele!” should be added to the Four Last Songs, to make five. His thesis is perhaps more convincing on aesthetic than on technical grounds, but it should be taken seriously for all that.

New Haven Jewish Ledger, January 27, 1995, Jonathan S. Tobin: “Honoring a prophet in his native land. Local academic tends the legacy of a German Jewish genius.”
There are no monuments to Heinrich Schenker in his native Vienna or anywhere else in the German-speaking world. But to musicologists, the little-known Schenker, an Austrian Jewish composer and music theorist, is a key figure in the modern study of music. For Professor Tim Jackson, who teaches musicology at Connecticut College in New London, the study of Schenker’s theories has taken on special meaning. Jackson, who is himself Jewish and a resident of the shore-line community of Madison, is spending a year in Germany teaching German music students about the work of Schenker. Jackson is in Germany on a prestigious senior Fulbright scholarship to teach at the Institute of Musicology at the University of Erlangen-Nuremburg in Bavaria. Back in Connecticut for a brief trip home in the middle of the academic year, Jackson spoke to the Ledger about the extraordinary experience of being a Jew in Germany, as well as an academic bringing back the teachings of a long-dead Jewish thinker to the country where he has been ignored for 60 years….Jackson explains that Schenkerian music theory is now studied in North America and Great Britain as standard fare and is consdiered the key to understanding both the mysteries and the logic of music. But his work is virtually unknon in Germany and Austria. Schenker lived in the early 20th century and died shortly before the Nazi Anscluss absorbed Vienna. Most of his students perished in the Holocaust. “He was an open and proud Jew, and that pride manifested itself in his writings,” Jackson says. While few outside the academic world of musicology could be expected to know the name of Schenker, Jackson says the composer’s work is a keystone to modern musicology. “He believed he had discovered an all-encompassing logic at the heart of music which was no less God-given than the laws of the Torah,” says Jackson. “There is something almost Mosaic in his writings. He saw the laws of music and wanted to bring them to mankind.” Jackson says his course is the first by a university-trained “Schenkerian” to be heard in one of the citadels of Germany music. He described his recption by both students and colleagues as a mixture of “hostility and enthusiasm.” “There is something very uncomfortable about a foreigner telling them about their own tradition which they themselves destroyed,” says Jackson. In his view, the irony is that after the war and the Holocaust, innovative thinking such as Schenker’s was deliberately discouraged in German academia. “All free abstract thinking was discouraged. It was seen as leading to ideological insanity,” he explains.

The New York Times, February 28, 1994, Edward Rothstein: “Bruckner: A Non-Nazi Perspective.”
The symposium, entitled “Perspectives on Anton Bruckner,” was partly meant, in fact, to be a declaration of independence from the Nazi esthetic and scholarly tradition. The gathering was organized by Timothy L. Jackson, an assistant professor of music at Connecticut College who has already made distinguished contributions to the understandings of both Bruckner and Richard Strauss, and Paul Hawkshaw, the associate dean of the Yale School of Music, who has worked closely with Bruckner manuscripts.

The Forward, March 4, 1994, Susan Miron: “Unsettling the Score.”
Attempts to clear up the biographical obfuscation surrounding Bruckner have proven as difficult as discovering his true musical intentions. The 1942 “so-called biography” by Max Auer is, to Mr. Jackson, a massive attempt to de Judaize him, vilifying, downplaying or removing every Jew who influenced Bruckner. “There are all kinds of perversions of the truth. This ‘definitive’ biography is full of anti-Semitic twists and turns.” To complicate matters, after the war, the head of the Austrian National Library, Leopold Nowak, refused or restricted entry to Bruckner scholars. “There was a situation in regard to access to Bruckner’s manuscripts which parallels the sad, scandalous fate of the Dead Sea Scrolls.” Thus, the scores and orchestral styles we associate with Bruckner nowadays are, according to Mr. Jackson, not the composer’s intended sounds, but the legacy of Bruckner’s most powerful proponent, the Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. The rewriting of Bruckner’s scores, the willed removal all “alien” (that is, Jewish) elements, influences and “textual contaminations,” parallels the attempts to portray this devout Austrian Catholic Church composer as a Teutonic hero, the paradigmatic German composer.[….] The second concert featured the world premiere of the revelatory arrangement for 10 instruments of Bruckner’s Seventh Symphony by yet another Jewish admirer of Bruckner, Arnold Schoenberg, who worked on this with three of his students in 1920 for Schoenberg’s Society for Private Performances. The Schoenbergians’ Neoclassical sounding transcription was, according to Mr. Jackson, “completely at odds with the prevailing colossal, sensationalist late romantic orchestrations by Bruckner’s still living associates.” Wagner, one must remember, never accepted Bruckner into his circle, and Bruckner (while alive and in control of his image) always refused to be rearded as a follower of Wagner. Schoenberg intuitvely understood Bruckner’s compositional technique and saw in Bruckner how one could be a modernist and a conservative composer simultaneously. Schoenberg’s stark but beautiful arrangement “strips away dark Wagnerian veneers to reveal Bruckner’s original bright, classical colors beneath,” Mr. Jackson writes. “Is it now time to travel further down the Neoclassical interpretive road which Schoenberg, prophetic in this as in so many other matters, had indicated in 1920?” Through the efforts of intrepid sleuths like Mr. Jackson, Bruckner, whose persona and musical intentions have been so manipulated and distorted, is finally being restored to a simpler, more truthful glory.

The Day, February 20, 1994, Milton Moore: “Settling the Score.”
In the tradition-bound world of academic musicology, it should come as no surprise that Timothy Jackson is eager to sweep the cobwebs from the corners. Just two years ago, he returned from research in Europe to publish a paper to argue that one of the most popular vocal works of this century, Richard Strauss’s “Four Last Songs,” should actually include five songs. Though not the sort of revelation to bring traffic on I-95 to a standstill, it characterizes the combination of scholarship and brashness that made colleage colleague Peter Sacco refer to the soft-spoken Jackson as “the Indiana Jones of musicology.” The four-day symposium, organized by Jackson and Yale School of Music associate dean Paul Hawkshaw, has attracted notable participants, including Elisabeth Maier, head of the Bruckner Institute in Linz, Austria; Leon Botstein, president of Bard College and director of the American Symphony Orchestra; and Constantin Floros, head of the music department at the University of Hamburg. The symposium members will challenge not only the aesthetic that guides the performances of the Bruckner symphonies, they will repudiate the decades of research and editing of his manuscripts generally considered definitive. The scores and orchestral styles used in concert halls today, Jackson says, are not the composer’s true work, but the legacy of Bruckner’s most powerful proponent, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels….In the 1920s, a research society was established in Austria to search out his original manuscripts. The watershed in Bruckner scholarship occurred in the Thirties when the society began releasing the authenticated “original” versions of his symphonies, a process Jackson and his colleagues see as tainted by Nazi goals. And after World War II, the manuscripts were controlled by one man, Leopold Nowak, who protected his academic sinecure by restricting other scholars’ access to them, an academic anathema Jackson says “parallels the sad, scandalous fate of the Dead Sea scrolls…..” Jackson says the search for original scores fit the Nazi agenda in two ways. First, Goebbels reveled in the imagery of Bruckner as the Germanic peasant unpolluted by outside influences, a humble vessel through whom flowed pure inspiration from above, a traditional Germanic vision of innocence embodied by the characters of Siegfried and Parsifal in Wagner’s operas. And secondly, many of Bruckner’s colleagues and students in Vienna were Jews; any revisions of his symphonies, even those by Bruckner himself, would doubtless reveal the influence of Jews.

The Mail Star, September 17, 1994, Stephen Pedersen: “Unsuspected discoveries of a Halifax musicologist.”
Nobody would mistake him for a gunslinger, but south of the border they’re calling former Haligonian Timothy Jackson “the Indiana Jones of musicology.” The soft-spoken former Halifax Grammar School student, now in his mid-30s, doesn’t carry a whip to get him out of the traps laid for those who dare to investigate the revered past. But he does have a steady gaze. And, according to his fellow musicologists, that steady gaze is peeling back the strata of musical history to reveal unsuspected discoveries….As if that were not crusading and temple of doom enough, Jackson leaves in October for the University of Nuremburg-Erlangen Institute of Musicology, where, as a Senior Fullbright Professor, he will lecture for a year on the musical theories of Heinrich Schenker. Why is this unusual? Schenker, who died in 1935, developed a new system of analyzing music that has taken root and flowered in North America but not in his own country. The Nazis vilified him because he was a Jew. Post-war Germans rebelled against him because, they said, he was a “proto-Nazi” himself. But now his ideas, revolutionary in their approach to understanding the fundamental structure of musical compositions, have begun to interest German scholars as well. And, if you have to find an authority, why not check out the guy with the steady gaze from Halifax? Are you listening Steven Spielberg?

The Day, April 16, 1996, Scott Timberg: “’Rescue’ of Bruckner is Work in Progress.”
The pieces performed by musicians from Connecticut College and universities in Europe and the United States, also include art songs….by the virtually unknown composer Reinhard Oppel. Oppel, who refused to cooperate with Hitler, asked his family to bury his scores so they’d survive. One of those hidden scores, his “Sextet for Wind Quintet and Piano” will be performed Friday. The last pieces were brought to American audiences by the efforts of Connecticut College professor Timothy Jackson, a conference organizer, in the kind of move that prompted conductor Peter Sacco to dub the soft-spoken and intellectual Jackson, “the Indiana Jones of Musicology.” “The field is really developing quickly,” says Jackson of the explosive issues now smoldering Bruckner scholarship. Bruckner’s music has long been popular among musicians and audiences, he says, but it’s only recently earned the attention of scholars, in large part due to the 1994 conference in New London.

Connecticut College Magazine, 1996, Milton Moore: “He’s the Indiana Jones of music. Unearthing new meanings for the classics.”
In a windowless lab in the Cummings Arts Center, Timothy L. Jackson is leading his students measure-by-measure into a musical maze. The class navigates through 20 minutes of detailed score analysis, poring over the harmonic structure in the music of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin. Then Jackson shifts from the details to the big picture, playing a disc of Beethoven’s Coriolan Overture, initiating a discussion of how Beethoven used contrasting themes in sonata form to depict the character of Coriolanus’s crisis of conscience. The class is an intense microcosm of Jackson himself, whose mercurial mind flashes from note-by-note minutia to sweeping analysis of cultural trends as impetuously as a Mahler symphony. The fifth year assistant professor teaches classes in the age-old staples of musical craft, harmony and counterpoint, topics as seemingly opposed as music appreciation for general students and Schenkerian analysis, the field of music theory employed by just a handful of musicologists and conductors. He is on the leading edge of a new era of understanding classical music. Over the past decade, the idea of “historically informed” performance has shaken the cobwebs off time-honored approaches to the classics….Dubbed “the Indiana Jones of music,” by a former CC colleague, Jackson received international attention for his 1992 study demonstrating that one of the most beloved works of Richard Strauss, The Four Last Songs, is actually five songs. Years of score analysis and poking through Strauss family archives in Germany led the Canadian-born Jackson to make a strong case for inclusion of a fifth song in the mix. The new song cycle was performed in Connecticut and at the Bard Festival in New York, broadcast nationally on NPR and reported in The New York Times and by the BBC. Similar international attention was elicted by a symposium on new approaches to the music of Anton Bruckner that was hosted by Connecticut College in 1994 and organized by Jackson and Paul Hawkshaw of the Yale School of Music. The gather proved so provocative it spawned a second round in Manchester, England this year. Clearly, the music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries holds a grip on Jackson. “It was the birth of the modern sensibility,” he says. “I believe Tchaikovsky’s music was very much about his homosexuality. Schubert may have been gay, but that isn’t in his music. Still, you can’t understand Tchaikovsky’s last three symphonies without considering what it was like to be gay in Russia in the late 19th century.” Jackson sees the music of Strauss, and to a lesser degree Bruckner, as the gateway to the post-tonal musical language of this century. “People tend not to think of [Arnold] Schoenberg as part of a historic trend.” With such an active intellect, it’s not surprising that Jackson has published dozens of articles and been awarded many international grants to further his research and writing, most notably the Senior Fulbright Scholarship that enabled him to teach at Nuernberg in 1995 and a National Endowment for the Humanities grant that will to his Strauss research next year.

The Day, February 23, 1997, Milton Moore: “A Musical Metamorphosis: Jackson finds himself an unwitting collaborator on Strauss piece.”
Time and again we’re reminded that we really do live in a shared culture, swimming in a sea of ideas fed by countless unseen tributaries. For Timothy L. Jackson, this web of unknown connections now seems boundless. The Connecticut College musicologist just learned that he was a crucial collaborator on a major recording project he’d never even heard of. American cellist Kenneth Slowik used a study of Jackson’s as the basis for a 1995 Smithsonian Cahmber Players recording of “Metamorphosen,” a large chamber work by Richard Strauss. Jackson is widely quoted in Slowik’s notes in the disc booklet. Slowik even included 19 short tracks on the disc to illustrate specific musical points made by Jackson in his original essay, which appeared in a book edited by Duke University musicologist Bryan Gilliam. “A few weeks ago, Bryan asked me in an e-mail if I had helped Slowik,” Jackson says, “and I said, ‘Who the hell’s he?’” An inveterate Web surfer, cellist Slowik seems more at ease with their un-collaboration. “It’s odd,” he says. “We’ve never spoken, but we share so many ideas.” Slowik’s BMG Classics’ recording project will probably even pay professional dividends for Jackson, since the recording has received very strong reviews in all the right places. The bible of classical music recordings, the British magazine Gromophone, wrote that Slowik’s interpretation has “irreproachable lucidity.” “ The textural transparency and sheer poise of Slowik’s reading is remarkable, lending Strauss’ inspiration a certain lofty detachment and purity of vision,” the reviewer continued. Jackson is a Strauss specialist, who lectures frequently in Germany and Great Britain. This year, a National Endowment for the Humanities grant has allowed him to take the year off from teaching to continue his Strauss writings. In his Madison home, Jackson works with copies of Strauss scores cut and pasted into strips dozens of feet long so he can draw linear graphs to trace the development of themes….It’s no minor contribution to clarify the program of a Strauss piece. “Metamorphosen” has long been seen as Strauss’s personal outpouring of grief after the destruction of the great opera house in Munich, where his father had been a horn principal for 49 years and where he himself conducted many personal triumphs. Despite Strauss’s own involvement with the Nazis and his self-serving blindness to their atrocities, his grief for the loss of great art, for the destruction of living museums like Dresden, is palpable. Standard texts explain that “Metamorphosen” grew out of a sketch in a Strauss workbook labeled “Mourning for Munich.” But tracing through other sketchbooks, Jackson found that the key themes in “Metamorphosen” actually originate in a choral setting of Goethe poems he left incomplete when the commission for “Metamorphosen” arrived. The title, Jackson argues, is not so much a grimly ironic reference to the destruction of Germany, but to a pair of Goethe poems on the metamorphosis of plants and animals. The key structural device supporting the haunting music, Jackson says, is that its themes change little across its 26-minute span, but they sinuously intertwine while the complex harmonies and keys shift continuously. It creates a sense of stasis despite constant motion, much like a restless sea. “The emphasis here is on the whole concept of sub-surface transformation,” he says. That transformation, so musically engaging, can also be read as a personal transformation or the transformation of a culture.

The North Texas Daily, November 25, 1998, Thomas Dodson: “Rare music collection ranks with Harvard.”
The addition of rare musical theory books, documents, and articles coming in December puts the music library in the same company as Harvard, says Timothy Jackson of the music faculty. Since 1995, Jackson has worked with the Rev. Kurt Oppel on the restoration and new applications of documents by music theorist Heinrich Schenker. “Schenker was the Einstein of music theory,” Jackson said. “His theories in music are the equivalent to quantum physics in science.” During the 1930s and ‘40s Oppel’s father, Reinhard, was a professor at the Leipzig Conservatory in Germany. He and Schenker, who was working in Vienna, Austria, corresponded with each other, sending everything from critiques, theories and analysis. Topics included works such as Baroque music, Brahms’s “Octaves and Fifths,” Handel and Bach. Oppel’s father died in 1941, but his family buried his documents in Halle, Germany, the same town where Handel worked, before escaping Russian troops. It was not until 1990 that Kurt Oppel retrieved his father’s trunk containing the Oppel-Schenker correspondence on musical treatises and humanistic works from the 16th to 19th centuries. “What these documents contain is a new application of Schenker’s theory to particular analytical musical problems,” Jackson said….Jackson also said that NT is trying to put together the Reinhard Oppel Memorial Collection. He said this presentation will bring the college one step closer to that goal.

The Fort Worth Star-Telegram, December 2, 1998, Terry Lee Goodrich: “A Classical Discovery. Rare musical documents chronicling the friendship between two noted musicians and theorists are the topic of a presentation today at UNT.”
Rare musical documents, discovered partly because of the amateur sleuthing of a UNT music professor, chronicle a friendship between two noted classical musicians and music theorists, the late Heinrich Schenker and the late Reinhard Oppel. Today, Oppel’s son, the Rev. Kurt Oppel of Hammelbach, Germany, who found the letters and composition critiques in a buried trunk in Germany, will present a few of them to the university on loan. Schenker, a pianist, composer, and music instructor who edited some Beethoven’s work, is “the Einstein of music theory,” said Tim Jackson, a UNT music theory professor. “He developed a whole new approach, looking at how all the parts fit into the whole.” Jackson will lecture about the documents, some of which are singed by World War II bombings, at 2 p.m. today in the university Recital Hall. The lecture will be followed by a performance of Reinhard Oppel’s music by UNT faculty members. Jackson’s fascination with the friendship between Schenker and Reinhard Oppel, apianist, violinist, and organist, began in 1990. Jackson was in Riverside, Calif., researching a collection of musical documents that endured the Holocaust, including Oppel’s letters to Schenker. “Oppel would send [musical] manuscripts and even memorablilia to Schenker,” who was an Austrian citizen, Jackson said. “They’d meet for a week every summer, when they’d wander around in the Austrian Alps wearing lederhosen, drinking lots of beer and talking about music.” Between visits, they wrote to each other about works by Handel, Bach, and Brahms, Jackson said. “Oppel was always very polite in his letters: ‘Many thanks for…your wonderful suggestions. I am always…in reverence of your fundamental wisdom and insight into all music.’” Jackson said he was curious about the other half of the picture, namely Schenker’s letters to Oppel, which had not been found. So he was excited a few years ago when a friend told him of an article in a small German music publication about a collection of Oppel’s books and letters found near Halle, Germany. After the Berlin Wall came down, Kurt Oppel had traveled there in search of his father’s trunk, which his family had hidden for safekeeping in a shed. Jackson tracked down the younger Oppel, explaining his search for the documents. “It was only about a year ago that Oppel realized there were all these Schenker documents in the box. It took the two of us awhile, after he photocopied them and sent them, to put the pieces of the puzzle together with the Oppel things from Riverside.” They learned that Schenker had admired Rienhard Oppel’s expertise, and that Oppel had “critiqued Schenker’s critiques, though he didn’t send them back,” Jackson said with a laugh. The younger Oppel said that hearing from Jackson was “a real revelation. We didn’t know about the letters in Riverside. Here you have a father who is a composer and teacher, but he didn’t speak so much about his past.” The papers are especially exciting because they are from a later period in Schenker’s life than those in other collections, said Les Brothers, chairman of the UNT division of music history, theory, and ethnomusicology. The papers will be kept with rare materials in the university Music Library, protected from fire and moisture but available to students for study.

The Dallas Morning News, January 22, 2000, Melinda Rice: “Treasure trove of German composer’s papers ends up at UNT. Trunk with precious papers lay in garden shed nearly 50 years.”
They’re just papers stashed in plain brown boxes. But they are unlike anything ever seen in this area. The documents, more than 10, 000 of them, now in the care of the University of North Texas, survived the death of their original owner, the Nazi rampage against all things Jewish, decades hidden behind the Iron Curtain and, finally, a trip of thousands of miles from Germany to Denton. They offer insights into two vastly different topics: music theory and the Holocaust. “It’s an amazing body of material,” says Timothy Jackson, an assistant professor of music at the University of North Texas. He discovered the collection and persuaded its owner to donate it last year to UNT. These papers originally belonged to Reinhard Oppel, a composer and music historian who taught at the renowned Leipzig Conservatory in Germany. He began a friendship with Heinrich Schenker in 1913, and their correspondence, including many critiques and analyses by Mr. Schenker, comprises the bulk of the Oppel Collection at UNT’s music library. Mr. Schenker, a famed music theorist, is the Albert Einstein of his field. “He came up with a whole new view of how music works,” Dr. Jackson says. Finding musical critiques in Mr. Schenker’s handwriting is comparable to finding early scribblings by Albert Einstein on the theory of relativity. That alone would make the collection valuable to academicians. Dr. Jackson says the papers shed light on how Mr. Schenker developed his theories, in which he speculated on the motivation behind the music and the composers. But there is another dimension to the papers, one that transcends pure academic interest. Mr. Schenker was Jewish. Mr. Oppel was not, but he was outspoken in his opposition to many Nazi policies. His views and his friendship with Mr. Schenker put Mr. Oppel and his family in disfavor with Hitler’s henchmen. After Mr. Oppel died of natural causes in 1941, his family feared his work would be destroyed as part of the Nazis’ attempt to purge all Jewish influences from German life. So they packed up all the papers in a trunk (ironically, the trunk Mr. Oppel used as an officer in the German army during World War I) and sent the papers to friends in Leune, which would become part of East Germany. The trunk remained hidden in a garden shed until 1990, when Mr. Oppel’s youngest son, Kurt, finally retrieved the papers, along with a collection of his father’s books, which had been hidden in a nearby church steeple. The books are also part of the Oppel Collection at UNT. “The lengths they went to to save these papers are incredible,” says Dr. Jackson. “It definitely shows their priorities as a family.” He began to suspect the papers might exist while doing research one summer at the University of California in Riverside, one of only two universities that had significant Schenker collections at that time. Many entries in Mr. Schenker’s diary referred to papers he sent to Mr. Oppel. Excited at the prospect of a cache of new Schenker materials, Dr. Jackson tracked down Kurt Oppel in 1995. “He didn’t know what he had,” says Dr. Jackson. Over the next two years, the two men developed a friendship and went through the papers, which overwhelmed the room they occupied in Mr. Oppel’s small flat. In 1997, they met for a concert in London, and Mr. Oppel thrilled Dr. Jackson with samples of the papers, which he had packed between his socks and underwear. “I was thrilled. I could barely breathe,” says Dr. Jackson. “He pulled these papers out, and there was Schenker’s handwriting. It was amazing.” Mr. Oppel, 70, decided he wanted his father’s papers preserved for scholars, so last year he donated them to UNT, where his friend, Dr. Jackson, had just accepted a job. The collection created a stir in the music world and elsewhere, as well….Mr. Schenker died of natural causes in 1935, but his wife was captured by the Nazis and sent to a concentration camp in Czechoslovakia. She died there in 1945. A letter she wrote to the Oppel family, begging for help, terrified Mr. Oppel’s wife, who told Dr. Jackson that she had feared the Nazis would come after her family…..UNT is in the process of cataloguing all of the material, and Dr. Jackson is evaluating it for a a book he is writing on how Mr. Schenker thought. “Can you imagine bringing a collection like this to your university in your first year there?” asks Dr. Lester Brothers, chairman of UNT’s division of music history, theory, and ethnomusicology. “It was exciting for all of us.”

Silenced by the Nazis, music finally airs in Israel Texas Jewish Post February 17, 2005
In a 3-1/2 hour live broadcast heard by nearly 40,000 Kol Israel radio listeners, a North Texas professor and four colleagues have given life to music the Nazi regime repressed in the 1930s.

“This is the hidden music of several European composers, notably Paul Kletzki, a native of Poland who served as director of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra from 1958 to 1962,” Timothy Jackson told the TJP last week from his office at the University of North Texas (UNT).

Through his “Lost Composers” project, Jackson and others have worked since 1990 to find and revive the unheard musical works long after their creators’ deaths. Jackson, 46, is Associate Professor of Music Theory and Director of the Center for Schenkerian Studies at UNT.

“Just like Israel has grown out of the ashes of the Holocaust, this music is being resurrected,” Jackson told radio listeners during his 15-minute introduction to the Dec. 14 concert at the Targ Center in Jerusalem. “I think Kletzki wanted, if his music ever was resurrected, to be resurrected here in Israel.”

The musicians performed the radio concert before a “small but appreciative [auditorium] audience, including the elite of the music community,” Jackson said. He called that night an emotional highlight of the 12-day musical tour of Israel. The program featured Kletzki’s Violin Concerto, Fantasy, and Piano Concerto.

The musicians performed the radio concert before a “small but appreciative [auditorium] audience, including the elite of the music community,” Jackson said. He called that night an emotional highlight of the 12-day musical tour of Israel. The program featured Kletzki’s Violin Concerto, Fantasy, and Piano Concerto.

The traveling group included two UNT pianists: Joseph Banowetz, a professor of piano, and Heejung Kang, a lecturer. The violinist was Robert Davidovici, professor of violin at Florida International University, and the vocalist was Sung-Ha Shin-Bouey, professor of voice at the University of Prince Edward Island in Canada.

The traveling group included two UNT pianists: Joseph Banowetz, a professor of piano, and Heejung Kang, a lecturer. The violinist was Robert Davidovici, professor of violin at Florida International University, and the vocalist was Sung-Ha Shin-Bouey, professor of voice at the University of Prince Edward Island in Canada.

The musicians performed in front of about 1,000 Israelis at six concerts and a lecture concert, from Hebrew University in Jerusalem to the University of Tel Aviv and Bar Ilan University in Tel Aviv and the Ghetto Fighters’ Museum on the Mediterranean coast between Acre and Nahariya.

The musicians performed in front of about 1,000 Israelis at six concerts and a lecture concert, from Hebrew University in Jerusalem to the University of Tel Aviv and Bar Ilan University in Tel Aviv and the Ghetto Fighters’ Museum on the Mediterranean coast between Acre and Nahariya.

Jackson calls Kletzki’s music “extremely powerful and very moving.” At the University of Tel Aviv, he spent a day meeting with David Block, who is doing “important work in reviving the music of composers who perished in the Holocaust,” Jackson told TJP.

While Kletzki, who died in 1973, has garnered a lot of attention, Jackson hailed the contributions of some of the other lost composers such as Reinhard Oppel, Josef Knettel, Heinrich Schenker, and Hans Weisse.

While Kletzki, who died in 1973, has garnered a lot of attention, Jackson hailed the contributions of some of the other lost composers such as Reinhard Oppel, Josef Knettel, Heinrich Schenker, and Hans Weisse.

Jackson particularly admires Schenker, a music theorist and analyst of tonal music who “was the Einstein of music theory,” Jackson said in a UNT student newspaper interview. “His theories in music are the equivalent to quantum physics in science.”

Jackson particularly admires Schenker, a music theorist and analyst of tonal music who “was the Einstein of music theory,” Jackson said in a UNT student newspaper interview. “His theories in music are the equivalent to quantum physics in science.”

….. Jackson found other lost composer compositions through his detective work in Europe. He travelled “like a vagabond, from library to library, especially in eastern Germany, looking for scores that had disappeared,” he told The Dallas Morning News last year. Ironically, some of the composers’ works were preserved because German librarians, ordered by the Nazis to destroy the music of Jewish composers and other “undesirables,” took the material off shelves and hid it. Jackson has a deep sense of losses from Holocaust, in which many of his mother’s relatives died. His revival of the composers’ music began with concerts in North Texas over the last year or so, and will continue with a lecture at the Arts and Reconciliation Conference at the University of Pretoria in South Africa next month.

….. Jackson found other lost composer compositions through his detective work in Europe. He travelled “like a vagabond, from library to library, especially in eastern Germany, looking for scores that had disappeared,” he told The Dallas Morning News last year. Ironically, some of the composers’ works were preserved because German librarians, ordered by the Nazis to destroy the music of Jewish composers and other “undesirables,” took the material off shelves and hid it. Jackson has a deep sense of losses from Holocaust, in which many of his mother’s relatives died. His revival of the composers’ music began with concerts in North Texas over the last year or so, and will continue with a lecture at the Arts and Reconciliation Conference at the University of Pretoria in South Africa next month.

The musical ensemble will be reconstituted in May for a concert at the Swiss embassy in Washington, D.C. “The Swiss are paying the costs,” Jackson said. “It’s all part of the reconciliation efforts. It’s more than music….. I’m trying to undo the damage.….to resurrect their work and give them the recognition which was their due,” Jackson concluded.

The musical ensemble will be reconstituted in May for a concert at the Swiss embassy in Washington, D.C. “The Swiss are paying the costs,” Jackson said. “It’s all part of the reconciliation efforts. It’s more than music….. I’m trying to undo the damage.….to resurrect their work and give them the recognition which was their due,” Jackson concluded.

A Composer's Ties to Nazi Germany Come Under New Scrutiny The Chronical of Higher Education Nov. 30, 2009
A Composer's Ties to Nazi Germany Come Under New Scrutiny Popperfoto, Getty Images
A U. of North Texas musicologist says that Jean Sibelius, shown here in 1934, was an active supporter of Nazism. Other scholars say the claim is overblown.
Enlarge Photo $().ready(function() { $('#enlarge-popup').jqm({trigger:'a.show-enlarge', modal: 'true'}); }); Popperfoto, Getty Images
A U. of North Texas musicologist says that Jean Sibelius, shown here in 1934, was an active supporter of Nazism. Other scholars say the claim is overblown.
By Peter Monaghan
The composer Jean Sibelius is arguably as important to early 20th-century music as Ezra Pound was to literary modernism. Now, more than 50 years after the Finnish composer died, in 1957, at the age of 91, a musicologist in Texas is claiming that Sibelius was culpably entangled with Nazi Germany, and should join Pound, Richard Wagner, and Louis-Ferdinand Céline in the select group of artists who have been cast into anti-Semitic ignominy.
Sibelius's associations with National Socialism amount to active support of Nazism and its propaganda efforts in Germany and the Nordic countries, says Timothy L. Jackson, a professor of music at the University of North Texas.
Other Sibelius experts say Jackson is making a Nazi out of a man who needed to deal with the Third Reich to earn his living, and who, along with most of the world, was perhaps too complacent about the rise of Hitler.
The role European composers may have played in laying the foundations for the grotesque ethos of Nazism has long been a contentious issue in musicological circles; the heat generated by such discussions relating to figures like Wagner suggests that the emerging dispute over Sibelius may significantly affect both the reception of his music and the way musical Romanticism is viewed in the history of 20th-century cultural life.
Jackson lays out his charges against Sibelius in a long essay in a book he has edited with three colleagues, Sibelius in the Old and New World: Aspects of His Music, Its Interpretation, and Reception, which Peter Lang Publishing Group is set to publish in the first half of next year. Jackson, a specialist in late Romantic composers such as Anton Bruckner, Richard Strauss, and Sibelius, previewed his arguments last month at the annual meeting of the American Musicological Society, in Philadelphia. That has sparked a vibrant e-mail exchange among several Sibelius experts, much of which participants have shared with The Chronicle.
From Sibelius archives and other sources, Jackson has accumulated a mass of documents, letters, government papers, and newspaper reports to challenge the standard take on Sibelius: that he was a passive, apolitical observer of the rise of Nazism and its effects on Europe.
He says Sibelius's early fascination with Finnish mythology and nationalism resonated with Nazism. And, as the Third Reich gained in strength, Sibelius enjoyed its financial arrangements for artists. For example, in 1933, when Joseph Goebbels was named minister of propaganda, Sibelius, already well established and 67 years old, began to profit from taxation and currency-exchange and currency-export preferences that Goebbels approved for artists.
Those were perks of cooperating with the "artist friendly" regime, Jackson suggests. But the Nazis were particularly well inclined toward Sibelius, he adds. For example, Sibelius in 1935 accepted a Goethe Medal that Adolf Hitler confirmed with his signature. From at least 1941, he drew a German pension that was worth half the average German annual income. In 1942, Third Reich officials approved the founding of the German Sibelius Society.
Nazi admiration of Sibelius has long led some music historians to view the composer with suspicion. Jackson is providing more fodder for that unease. He argues that, by going along with all the accolades, Sibelius was committing "a political act of considerable importance to Finland, if not Germany, with a huge propaganda significance."
No single event more clearly illustrates Sibelius's empathy with the Nazi ethos, Jackson believes, than his reneging on his promise to help a young, part-Jewish composer, Günther Raphael. In the years 1931 to 1936, Raphael implored Sibelius repeatedly, urgently, and obsequiously to help him to retain his teaching position in Germany at a time when Jewish artists were being dismissed from their posts.
Jackson insists that Sibelius could have joined the many prominent artists who asked Goebbels to protect favored Jewish colleagues. But he chose not to risk Goebbels's disfavor.
And in mid-1942, says Jackson, when it still seemed that Germany might win the war, Sibelius agreed to be interviewed at his home in Finland by Anton Kloss, an SS war reporter who had most likely taken part in war atrocities. Surely, says Jackson, by that time Sibelius would have heard what the Nazis were doing throughout Europe.
Such actions condemn Sibelius, he asserts, even though the composer did, in late 1943, denounce the Nazis' "bad social prejudices""quietly, in his diary.
More significant, Jackson says, is that Sibelius continued to take money from Nazi Germany throughout the war, even complaining that payments were not consistently arriving.
Jackson says he believes that Sibelius scholars have viewed Sibelius from a hagiographic rather than historical perspective that is all too common in biographies of great artists"and have, as a result, overlooked that he was less than a saint.
For other Sibelius specialists, however, it is Jackson's perspective that is warped. In telephone interviews, as in their e-mail exchanges with the Texas music historian, they characterize his allegations as a cherry-picking smear campaign.
Consider the age and isolation of Sibelius by the time the war came"he had virtually stopped composing 20 years earlier"suggests one Finnish Sibelius authority, Vesa Sirén. "Keep in mind that we are talking about a bald-headed old man with shaky hands and a cataract in his eye who probably didn't even know what the SS was," says Sirén, a music journalist, author of a study of how Sibelius's contemporaries viewed him, and the editor of the Sibelius estate's official Web site.
Sirén, like Veijo Murtomäki, a professor of music history at the Sibelius Academy, in Helsinki, and a leading authority on the composer, praises Jackson for calling attention to facts of Sibelius's life, such as the monetary value of the well-known favors that he received from Third Reich admirers. But Jackson's claims are consistently overblown and out of context, Sirén and Murtomäki insist.
Take that 1942 interview with the SS reporter. Jackson says it was highly significant, because Sibelius was a recluse who rarely granted press interviews. "Total nonsense," scoffs Sirén. Sibelius agreed to numerous interviews during the 1940s, often at the behest of the Finnish foreign ministry. "He said he wouldn't want to see so many people in his home, but he would, if it was good for Finland," says Sirén. "Sibelius was a great composer and also vain, a little bit childish. But he was also a patriot."
Or consider Jackson's characterization of Sibelius's payments from Germany as being "on the Nazi payroll." Says Sirén: "When the Nazis took over, the last thing on their mind was obeying international copyright laws." Sibelius doggedly pursued his royalties"from Germany, where most were due, as well as from other countries. "We can argue that it would have been better that he said 'I don't want anything to do with Germany,' but still, he was entitled to his copyright money," she says.
And was Sibelius's decision not to help Günther Raphael really proof of anti-Semitism? That claim, says Sirén, ignores that the composer received, and rejected, hundreds of such requests, and by the 1930s had had enough. In fact, says Sirén, Sibelius had given out so many recommendations, motivated by politeness rather than informed by their recipients' qualifications, that "he now felt that he was in the middle of a nest of lies."
Murtomäki, who with Jackson is one of the editors of a forthcoming collection of essays, Sibelius in the Old and New World, contends that the weakness in all his colleagues' criticisms of Sibelius is that they ignore historical context.
One simple example: Jackson's objection to Sibelius's accepting the Goethe Medal, in 1935. Murtomäki asks: Why would Sibelius not accept such honors, given that he was at the time arguably the world's most successful living classical composer, winning honors around the world?
Jackson also ignores the complexity of Finnish views of Germany, contends Murtomäki. He notes that at the beginning of the Third Reich, many Finns believed that Germany not only was improving the lot of its citizens but also was emerging as an effective foil to the Bolshevist threat. In 1939 the Soviet Union attacked and managed to annex part of Finland. So in 1941 Finland allied itself with Germany, hoping to stave off both Nazi and Soviet invasion. But in September 1944, it began the seven-month Lapland War against Germany.
With these turnabouts, Sibelius, too, suffered reversals: At times he was hailed as a standard-bearer of freedom; at others he was decried as a Nazi stooge trading on his Aryan birth. But throughout this vacillation, Sibelius valued his acclaim in Germany, the country that Finns considered a cultural mecca.
"Professor Jackson has some pieces of a puzzle at his hands, but the picture he is constructing with the pieces is rather strange for us who know better the cultural and political situation of Finland during the Third Reich," says Murtomäki.
He allows that Jackson is doing a service to the history of Finnish cultural, scientific, and political relations with German colleagues during the Third Reich. But while Jackson insists that his evidence against Sibelius is more than circumstantial, Murtomäki is not so sure: "So, Sibelius was selfish and flattered by his fame in Germany and wanted the money. I am sorry for that. But it does not make him a Nazi or a great friend of any SS person or acts made by them. History is not that easy."

Related Links:

"American professor apparently alone in theories of Jean Sibelius’s Nazi connections Helsingin Sanomat reads the proofs of the much-talked-about Sibelius book" Helsingin Sanomat / First published in print 21.5.2010
American professor apparently alone in theories of Jean Sibelius’s Nazi connections Helsingin Sanomat reads the proofs of the much-talked-about Sibelius book

print this

By Vesa Sirén

Who would have thought that a collection of articles that primarily draws on the fruits of the 2005 Sibelius Conference would become a news item in its own right?
Still, this is exactly what has happened. A volume entitled Sibelius in the New and Old World , edited by Timothy L. Jackson, Veijo Murtomäki, Colin Davis, and Timo Virtanen contains an article entitled Sibelius the Political by Timothy L. Jackson, professor of music at the University of North Texas.
Jackson accuses the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) of aiding and abetting the German Nazis while on their payroll.
In December of last year, Jackson accused Sibelius of still graver deeds. Jackson’s claims were quoted widely at the time, even by the Finnish tabloids for whom Sibelius matters are not really the usual fare.

Helsingin Sanomat has now come by a copy of the proofs of the soon-to-be published book.
In it Jackson stands alone with his opinions.
The remaining researchers whose articles have been included in the compilation concentrate in their musicological musings on less controversial subjects such as Sibelius’s 3rd Symphony or the critical edition of his tone poem for orchestra "The Wood Nymph" (Skogsrået ), Op. 15 (1894).

In his attempt to prove that the Finnish maestro was indeed “political”, Jackson refers to a “test case” that allegedly reveals Sibelius’s attitude towards the German Nazi administration in the years from 1933-1945.
For such a test case, Jackson uses Sibelius’s correspondence with the German composer Günther Raphael.
In a polite letter written in the early 1930s, Sibelius promised to always act as a referee for composer Raphael.
However, after the Nazis had come to power in Germany in 1933 and a troubled Raphael, who was part Jewish, requested a letter of reference from Sibelius in order to keep his job, Sibelius declined.

Jackson senses political motives in Sibelius’s change of heart, but is one example enough?
Jackson could examine hundreds of other reference requests from the Finnish archives.
Veijo Murtomäki quickly found a reference letter that Sibelius had issued to the Finnish Jewish conductor Simon Parmet.
And of course the composer also issued a similar letter to conductor Helmuth Thierfelder, favoured by the Nazis.
In fact Sibelius dished out references uninhibitedly, to the point where the requests and their replies make for a rather boring read.

Between 1930 and 1950 , the already ageing composer complained repeatedly that he had been too generous with issuing reference letters.
At times he would put a stop to writing them altogether, but sooner or later he would give in to yet another request.
The matter is mentioned in secretary Santeri Levas’s Sibelius biography and in the memoirs of Sibelius's son-in-law, conductor Jussi Jalas (1908-1985). Perhaps mood swings played a greater part than politics when it came to issuing letters of reference.
Nevertheless, Jackson tells a heart-rending story of Raphael’s sufferings and survival. As it happens, even after the war, Raphael and Sibelius would write to each other in a very cordial manner.

Jackson points out that in 1934 , Sibelius agreed to become the Vice-Chairman of the Ständiger Rat für die Internationale Zusammenarbeit der Komponisten .
Composer Richard Strauss was the Chairman of this permanent council of composers, which was a part of the Reichsmusikkammer .
In turn the Reichsmusikkammer promoted the music that chimed with the views of the Nazi regime, while suppressing the music that conflicted with them.
The overture from the council was, however, a mere nod of recognition.
Sibelius did not take part in the organisation’s activities.
Nevertheless, because the Ständiger Rat later proved a Nazi propaganda tool, this provides Jackson with ammunition against Sibelius.

In 1935, Sibelius turned 70 , and he received accolades from all over the world.
Jackson chooses to mention only the German ones - the Brahms Medal from Hamburg and the Goethe Medal from none other than Adolf Hitler.
In 1942 Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels founded a Sibelius Society in Germany “following a Finnish request”, and Sibelius’s famous radio greeting was aired.

According to Jackson , in Finland this was considered “an enormously important political occurrence”.
He mentions this already on the first page of his article, without bothering to shed any light on background information concerning Finland’s undertakings in the Winter War (1939-40) and the Continuation War (1941-44).*
Jackson is not interested in Sibelius Societies in other countries or in Sibelius’s reaction to them - in Britain the Sibelius Society was in full swing already a full decade earlier.

Jackson looks into Sibelius’s income from Germany . Sibelius became popular in Germany in the 1930s, but at the same time he became even more popular in the United States and the United Kingdom, a fact that Jackson fails to address.
According to Jackson, Sibelius obtained so much income from Germany that this may have affected his sayings, especially during the years of the Continuation War, during which time Sibelius’s copyright income was frozen in the Allied Powers.
Jackson reckons that Sibelius had a preferential standing when it came to copyright and pension payments.
What is certainly true is that income was distributed on a false basis, for example by oppressing the Jews, and that in this way Sibelius was in fact receiving blood money that he could have refused.

This is an interesting moral dilemma , and touches on one of the painful spots of 20th century Finnish history.
A counter-argument could be that leaving the copyright income in Germany would have benefited the Nazis even more. On the other hand, refusing to accept the payments would have been a strong propaganda slap against the Nazi regime.
Jackson fails to mention that Sibelius had disputes with the German copyright officials from the start of the Third Reich. This is evident in the correspondence that I have studied.
Sibelius wrote irritated complaints about the payments traffic, which were replied to by the officials with excuses and “Heil Hitler” greetings.
Sibelius’s salutation was a most reserved one: "mit vorzüglicher Hochachtung".

Jackson does point out that in his journal in the 1940s Sibelius laments the absurdity of the race laws of the Nazis.
Jackson does not read Finnish or Swedish, but has had some excerpts of translations at his disposal.

Jackson comes up with the theory according to which Sibelius's possible preferential treatment could have been in jeopardy had he not agreed to fill in a humiliating form regarding his bloodline.
Jackson suspects that the composer filled in the form, because he rejoiced over a “good letter” that he had received from the copyright organisation.
This theory, however, is called into question by a letter dating back to September 15th, 1943, which Fabian Dahlström mentions in his book and which researcher Timo Virtanen has again dug out from the National Library.
In it, the Germans apologise for their labour shortage and the subsequent delays in the payment of the copyright fees and ask Sibelius for an official proof of citizenship (Staatsangehörigkeit ) requested by the tax department (Finanzamt ), for the purpose of releasing him from certain taxes, and nothing more.
So, additional evidence might be in order.
Would it be a good idea to actually first study the related correspondence before coming up with theories?

But let us not get bogged down in details and nuances.
With regard to the relationship between Finland and Germany, there is definitely plenty to ponder.
And perhaps even with regard to Sibelius's part in it, even though the elderly composer had made his last journey abroad in 1932 and completed all of his major works before the year 1930.
Sibelius mainly received information about the Nazis by reading the papers with his cataract-wracked eyes, by listening to the radio, and by chatting with those close to him, according to whom he was suspicious of the Nazis right from the outset - unlike his wife Aino Sibelius.
At least in the early stages of the Reich, Aino believed in the Hitler-friendly writings published by the Finnish daily newspaper Uusi Suomi .

What about the conclusions? In Jackson’s view, Sibelius behaved like so many other composers of the time.
He is astonished, however, that Sibelius was "on the Nazi payroll” for so long and that he “helped them so openly”.
It is easy to present counter-arguments, but this is not enough.
One needs scientific articles to either prove or disprove Jackson’s ideas in a more detailed manner.
Or should we first wait for Jackson’s next and possibly even more cutting article?
Perhaps with a working title like “Sibelius and the SS”?

Helsingin Sanomat / First published in print 21.5.2010

*Translator's Note : It may be worth noting that by the time Sibelius went on the air and commented on the common destiny of the two countries, Finland was a co-belligerent with Germany in an attempt to wrest back from the Soviet Union the territory ceded after the Winter War.
Equally, it is probably of note that despite that awkward marriage of convenience with Nazi Germany, at no time did Finland have a "Jewish Question" as such: in one of the more curious footnotes to the Second World War, Finnish Jews fought in the Continuation War in the Finnish Army alongside German troops (there was even a field synagogue on the Eastern Front), and some were indeed awarded decorations for valour by the Germans. They politely refused them.

Related Links:

Forgotten Work Gets Grammy Nomination
Web Link
Paul Kletzki lost his inspiration to compose music after his sister and parents died in the Holocaust. The native of Lodz, Poland, who wrote and conducted in Berlin before leaving Germany in the 1930s, went on to achieve international acclaim as a conductor but his own musical compositions faded into obscurity.
Now, one of his pieces from the early 1930s, a piano concerto, has been revived by a project at the University of North Texas, and a performance of the work will be in the running for a Grammy award this Sunday.
“It’s very emotionally charged. It’s significant music,” said University of North Texas piano professor Joseph Banowetz, who performed the piece with the Russian Philharmonic Orchestra. He said the piece is technically demanding for both the pianist and the orchestra.
The piece, “Piano Concerto in D Minor, Op. 22,” from 1930, was revived by the Lost Composers and Theorists Project, which showcases music from the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s that was suppressed by the Nazis or otherwise lost. Nazi policies banned the work of Jewish musicians.
“I wanted to give a voice to the composers who were silenced by the Third Reich,” said music theory professor Timothy Jackson, who founded the project in the late 1990s.
So far, the project has brought attention to the work of 10 composers and music theorists. Project researchers document and publish articles about the works, prepare scores, arrange performances and make recordings.
Jackson learned about Kletzki’s compositions from a friend working at a Zurich library, which had received the works from Kletzki’s wife. Jackson knew Kletzki, who died in 1973, as a famous conductor but didn’t know he had been a composer. After traveling to Switzerland and looking over the works, he was astonished: “The music was amazing,” he said.
Kletzki, who was Jewish, conducted pieces of his own music with orchestras throughout Germany before fleeing in 1933. Kletzki spent time in Italy and Russia before settling with his wife in Switzerland in 1939. He had guest-conducting positions all over the world, was conductor for a time of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra and also served as musical director of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, or Orchestra of French Switzerland.
“People lost track of him as a composer because he did not use his position as a conductor really to advocate his own music,” Jackson said. “He was very quiet about it. Probably because he associated it with his pre-war life and that was painful.”
Many of his compositions, including a two-piano version of the Grammy-nominated concerto, were left in a trunk in the basement of a hotel in Milan that was bombed during World War II. When the trunk was found in an excavation in the 1960s, Kletzki didn’t open it because he assumed “the music would have turned to dust,” Jackson said. The works eventually ended up the Zurich library.
A musician working on his master’s degree at the University of North Texas, John Norine Jr., took on the task of composing the full orchestra version of Kletzki’s concerto from the two-piano version.
Norine, who went on to get a doctorate in orchestral conducting, said that the second piano part offered clues for the full orchestral version. He also was familiar with Kletzki’s style from his other works. “It really is a new orchestration, equal parts Kletzki and my work,” he said.
Jackson said he has happened upon other works in German libraries that were under order to be destroyed during the Nazi era, but survived.
Learn More

Related Links:


Texas project uncovers works by composers persecuted by the Nazis
Web Link
Texas project uncovers works by composers persecuted by the Nazis Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Paul Kletzki stopped composing after being traumatized by Nazi atrocities The Nazis were responsible for the persecution or murder of numerous composers, resulting in the loss of many of their musical works. Now, a project in Texas is unearthing some of those compositions.
Musicologist Timothy Jackson, who teaches at the University of North Texas in Denton, is a man with a mission. Currently, he's devoting himself to the works of Paul Kletzki, one of the 10 "lost composers" his project is aiming to unveil.
Kletzki was born in Lodz in 1900 and soon became one of the stars of the German music scene, reaping particular success in Weimar with his symphonies and piano concertos. He was respected by composers and conductors alike. But there was just one problem: He was a Jew, and when the Nazis gained power in the early 1930s, Jewish composers were outlawed.
"Just as Paul Kletzki was making his breakthrough, Hitler rose to power [in 1933] and the composer realized he didn't have a future," Jackson said.
Nazi atrocities
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Joseph Banowetz' recording of Kletzki's piano concerto was nominated for a 2011 Grammy Kletzki first fled to Italy, then Russia, and finally to Switzerland. Traumatized by Nazi atrocities, including the loss of his parents and sister, Kletzki stopped composing in 1942. Turning instead to conducting, he buried his sheet music in a box.
When the box was unearthed in 1964, Kletzki could not bring himself to open it. It wasn't until after his death in 1973 that the composer's wife, Yvonne, discovered that all the compositions remained intact inside. She then passed the compositions on to Timothy Jackson. Several of Kletzki's works have meanwhile been recorded on CD, with the last recording of his piano concerto nominated for a Grammy this year.
Buried in a garden shed
Timothy Jackson is not the only researcher with such a mission, said Bret Werb, music curator at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. A number of composers persecuted by the Nazi regime have been rediscovered and their works rescued over the years, but, as Werb points out, the Internet has eased and invigorated the exchange of information, and more and more is being discovered about this lost period.
"A large part of the music would otherwise be lost," Werb said. "It's our job to give those who were previously unjustly treated a second chance."
When Jackson began his project at the beginning of the 1990s, he was researching information about contemporaries of the famous Viennese music theorist Heinrich Schenker and came across one of his colleagues, Reinhard Oppel, who had taught at the University of Kiel.
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Reinhard Oppel, pictured here in 1924, was later persecuted by the Nazis Kurt Oppel, Reinhard Oppel's son, currently lives near Heidelberg. The 80-year-old pastor recalls that his father was "an imposing, interesting man who could be both charming and hot-tempered." He was a musician through and through; he learned to play the organ before he even attended school and taught himself to play the trombone at age 60.
Oppel Senior was made no secret of his distaste for the Nazis. It wasn't long before they forced him - at age 62, with a severe heart condition - to join the military. He died in 1941.
Following the war, his son Kurt settled in West Germany, leaving his father's work "stacked up in margarine boxes and partially buried" in the garden shed of family friends, he noted.
Personal stories
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Musicologist Timothy Jackson (foreground) with Kurt Oppel Musicologist Jackson is also interested in his own family's history, his own mother having been an artist who grew up in the shadows of the Holocaust. Through his music research, he hopes to discover more "lost composers" and said a lot of what he learns is coincidence. It's also dependent on how much families want to reveal about their relatives.
"And we hope that when their music is discovered, it's not considered 'forbidden art' or connected with exiled composers or deemed 'Holocaust music', but is just looked at as 'music,'" curator Werb said.
Author: Christina Bergmann / als
Editor: Kate Bowen

Related Links:

Noten aus der Vergangenheit
Web Link
Geschichte | 15.03.2011 Noten aus der Vergangenheit Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Kurt Oppel und Timothy Jackson Durch die Naziherrschaft gingen viele musikalische Kunstwerke verloren, weil Komponisten verfolgt oder umgebracht wurden. In Texas spürt der Musikwissenschaftler Timothy Jackson diese "verlorenen Komponisten" auf.
Paul Kletzki ist einer der zehn "verlorenen Komponisten", mit denen sich das Projekt in Texas beschäftigt. Er wurde 1900 im polnischen Lodz geboren und entwickelte sich schnell zum Star der deutschen Musikszene. In Weimar feierte er Erfolge, schrieb Symphonien und Klavierkonzerte. Der Komponist und Dirigent Wilhelm Furtwängler, sagt der Musikwissenschaftler Timothy Jackson, habe viel von Kletzki gehalten. Doch Paul Kletzki war Jude. Und jüdische Komponisten wurden von den Nazis geächtet, ganz gleich, welcher Musikrichtung sie angehörten.

Verstummt angesichts des Holocaust

Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Paul Kletzkis Klavierkonzert in D-Moll, Opus 22 "Als Paul Kletzki gerade seinen großen Durchbruch erlebte", sagt Jackson, "kam Hitler an die Macht und Kletzki wurde klar, dass seine Zukunft zerstört war." Kletzki flüchtete zunächst nach Italien, dann nach Russland und schließlich in die Schweiz. Angesichts der Gräueltaten, die die Nazis an den Juden verübten, und denen auch seine Eltern und seine Schwester schließlich zum Opfer fielen, hörte er 1942 auf zu komponieren." Aus dem Komponisten wurde ein Dirigent, der seine Notenblätter in einer Kiste vergrub. Als diese Kiste 1964 wieder entdeckt wurde, brachte er es nicht über sich, sie zu öffnen. Erst nach Kletzkis Tod 1973 stellte seine Witwe Yvonne fest, dass seine Werk darin alle erhalten geblieben waren. Yvonne Kletzki hat die Unterlagen Timothy Jackson gegeben. Inzwischen gibt es einige von Kletzkis Werken als CD zu kaufen. Die letzte Aufnahme mit seinen Klavierkonzerten war sogar in diesem Jahr für einen Grammy nominiert.

Den Vergessenen eine zweite Chance geben

Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Paul Kletzki am Klavier Projekte wie das von Timothy Jackson gibt es weltweit viele, erklärt Bret Werb, der für Musik zuständige Kurator des Holocaust-Museums in Washington. Durch das Internet ist der Informationsaustausch reger und einfacher geworden, es gelangen noch immer unbekannte Informationen über Komponisten ans Tageslicht. "Ein Großteil dieser Musik wäre vermutlich so oder so in Vergessenheit geraten," so Werb, "aber es ist unsere Aufgabe, jenen eine zweite Chance zu verschaffen, die vielleicht unfair behandelt worden sind." Timothy Jackson hat Anfang der 90er Jahre mit seinem Projekt begonnen. Damals forschte er nach Zeitgenossen des berühmten Wiener Musiktheoretikers Heinrich Schenker und stieß so auf Reinhard Oppel, einen Kollegen Schenkers, der an der Universität von Kiel unterrichtete.

Die Noten im Garten vergraben

Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Reinhard Oppel an seinem Klavier Der Pfarrer Kurt Oppel, Reinhard Oppels Sohn, lebt heute in der Nähe von Heidelberg. Der rüstige 80jährige erinnert sich: "Mein Vater war ein ungewöhnlich imposanter, interessanter Mann, er konnte sehr charmant sein, er konnte aber auch sehr jähzornig sein." Ein Vollblutmusiker sei er gewesen, der schon mit sechs Jahren, vor der Schule, Orgel gespielt habe und mit 60 Jahren noch Posaune lernte. Von den Nazis und von Hitler habe sein Vater nicht viel gehalten, sagt Kurt Oppel, und daraus auch keinen Hehl gemacht. Die Schikane ließ nicht auf sich warten. Noch im Alter von 62 Jahren, schwer herzkrank, musste Reinhard Oppel eine Musterung zur Wehrmacht über sich ergehen lassen. Er starb 1941. Sein Sohn Kurt ging nach dem Krieg in den Westen. Die Werke seines Vaters blieben bei Freunden in einem Gartenhaus, wo "ein Teil in Margarinekartons aufgestapelt und zum Teil vergraben wurde“, erzählt Kurt Oppel.

Motiviert von der eigenen Familiengeschichte

Dem Musikwissenschaftler Jackson geht es in dem Projekt auch um seine eigene Familiengeschichte. Jacksons Mutter war Künstlerin, die im Schatten des Holocaust aufgewachsen ist. Timothy Jackson hofft, dass er vielleicht noch auf weitere "verlorene Komponisten" stößt. Viel hängt vom Zufall ab " und von Familienmitgliedern, die das Vermächtnis ihrer Vorfahren wieder ans Licht bringen wollen. Jackson hofft, dass er noch die Musik vieler anderer Komponisten ausgraben kann. Kurator Bret Werb erklärt: "Und wir hoffen, dass ihre Musik nicht im Zusammenhang von verbotener Kunst, Komponisten im Exil oder Holocaust-Musik aufgeführt wird, sondern einfach als Musik."

Autorin: Christina Bergmann
Redaktion: Gudrun Stegen

Related Links:

toggle toggle Presentations and Projects
  Presentations/Projects per page   
1  2 3 4 5 6 
Start DateEnd DatePresentation/Project
2008 2008 Chair of the Lecture Committee for the Division of History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology at UNT, College of Music 2006-2008
As Chair of the Lecture Committee (until September 2008) and in consultation with other UNT faculty on the Lecture Committee, organized residencies at UNT by Robert Hatten, Feburary 6-8, 2008 (Indiana) , William Kinderman March 10-14 (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) , during the 2008 Spring Semester, and Stephen Vande Moortele, November 10, 2008. Obtained Getty Funding to facilitate this Lecture Series and also raised (outside) funding from the Dallas Goethe Society (specifically, I arranged lectures by Hatten and Kinderman for the Dallas Goethe Society to supplement UNT funding).

2007 2009 Hans Weisse Project at UNT
Facilitated donation of Hans Weisse’s Counterpoint Studies with Heinrich Schenker to the special collections of the Willis Memorial Library by the family of Hans Weisse (see also my paper at the Joint National Meetings of the American Musicological Society (AMS) and Society for Music Theory (SMT), Nashville, 2008).
Co-organized (with Eileen Hayes, Division Chair, and Cara Stroud, UNT undergraduate honors student) "Hans Weisse Memorial Concert" with pre-concert lecture by Allen Forte, Wednesday, April 8, 2009. The concert, which presented Zehn biblische Sprüche für eine mittlere Frauenstimme (Alt) mit obligater Begleitung einer Klarinette (Klarinette in A u. B.) from 1925, Second String Quartet, first two movements (1933), Sonata for Piano and Violin (1932), third movement, and Small Chamber Concerto for Flute, Oboe, and Harpsichord (1937), was attended by the composer's granddaughter Dr. Bronwyn Cooper-Weisse and her family.
2007 2008 Paul Kletzki Project in Berlin, Germany
In tIn the context of the “Lost Composers” Project, organized the recording of Paul Kletzki’s First Symphony, Deutschland Radio Orchestra, Berlin, conducted by Israel Yinon, for CPO Records, Berlin, September 6-9, 2008. Prepared scores and parts for Ries und Erler, Berlin. The CD will be completed when Yinon records Kletzki’s Konzertmusik in 2009.

toggle toggle External Funding
 Performance PeriodTitleSponsorFundingRoleStatus
2007-2008Established the Allen Forte Project at UNT’s College of Music, which will make all of his unpublished papers available on the web at http://forte.music.unt.edu/, soon moving to www.music.unt.edu/forteAnonymous Donor$15,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
2005Fulbright Teaching Award to KoreaJ. William Fulbright Commission, to support one semester of teaching at Hanyang University$17,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
2004Grant to Support the Fourth International Sibelius Symposium at the College of Music, UNTNokia$20,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
2001Grant to support performance and recording of "Lost Composer" Hans Schaeuble's opera Dorian GreyHans Schaeuble Foundation, Zurich, Switzerland$65,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
2000Summer Research Grant for University Professors; September 1999 I was selected by UNT to represent the University the single nomination at the junior faculty level forwarded to the National Endowment of the Humanities’ national competitionNational Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)$5,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1999-2000Guided and supported the successful application for a Fulbright Exchange Fellowship by Dr. Margus Pärtlas, Associate Professor at the Estonian Academy of Music, to spend the academic year 1999-2000 at UNT’s College of Music.J. William Fulbright Commission to support one year of study with me by Estonian Professor of Music Theory$34,000+airfare, housing, etc.Senior PersonnelCompleted
1998Organized a visit to Campus by the Rev. Kurt Oppel, a potential donor to the University and the College of Music. The visit was made possible by funding ($1600) that Dr. Morris Martin (Head Librarian) and I raised from both University and private sources.Anonymous Donor$1,600Co-PICompleted
1996-1997Fellowship for College ProfessorsNational Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)$30,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1995Intercountry AwardFinnish Fulbright Commission$3,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1994-1995Senior Fulbright Teaching and Research Award to GermanyJ. William Fulbright Commission, to support one year of teaching and research in Germany, based at the University of Erlangen$36,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1994Intercountry AwardBritish Fulbright Commission$2,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1989-1991Two-year Canada Research Grant, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC)Government of Canada$65,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1988-1989Österreichischer Akademischer Austauschdienst (OAD) Austrian Academic Exchange ServiceGovernment of Austria$10,000+airfare, housing, etc.Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1985-1987Doctoral Fellowships from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC)Government of Canada$23,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1985-1986Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) German Academic Exchange ServiceGovernment of Germany$8500+airfare, housing, etc.Principal InvestigatorCompleted
1982-1983Grant to Support Doctoral Studies in New York CityGovernment of Nova Scotia, Canada$2,000Principal InvestigatorCompleted
toggle toggle Peer Reviewer Activities
YearAgency/OrganizationField of Expertise
2008Reviewer for the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 2008.Musicology and Music Theory
2008Reader for Music and Letters, Oxford University Press, 2008.Musicoloty and Music Theory
2005Reviewer for Music Analysis, Blackwells of OxfordMusicology and Music Theory
2005Eastman Music Theory Journal IntegraleMusicology and Music Theory
2005The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, IsraelPromotion and Tenure Reviewer
2002Reviewer for Cambridge University PressMusicology and Music Theory
toggle toggle Teaching
2005, A New Methodology for Teaching Schenkerian Analysis, and its Application to Teaching non-English Speakers
To conclude this report on my teaching in Korea, I would like to call attention to a new pedagogical approach that I have been developing for teaching Schenkerian analysis at UNT, and that I also applied here, successfully, I believe, at Hanyang University in Korea. Since students often find it difficult to align Schenkerian graphs with the music, I have begun to teach the analytical method in a way that makes it possible for the students to make their analysis right on the music itself: specifically, I give the students a pasted up score formatted so that they can conveniently notate the Schenkerian analytical symbols right on the music. Additionally, I have further developed this approach so that I can guide the assignment by giving the students a certain number of clues: specifically, I begin by annotating the analysis on the pasted up score and ask the students to complete it, “filling in the blanks” so to speak. Once the students have “filled in” their analysis on the annotated score, I then teach them how to “extract” the Schenkerian graph from the it. I have found that this approach allowed students even with minimal English skills (which was the case with a few of my Korean students) to clearly follow my lectures. Both at UNT and in Korea, I have combined this approach with more traditional pedagogical strategies, such as asking the students to photocopy their own graphs for distribution to and critique by the professor and the class as a whole.

Statements of Teaching Philosophy
Over the past decade of teaching at UNT and elsewhere (Korea, Switzerland, Germany, France, Estonia), I have documented some of my evolving ideas on teaching. Perhaps these observations will be of interest not only to colleagues and peers, but also students. While it is obvious from my responses to the research catagories that I am profoundly interested in research, I hope, through these discussions of pedagogy, to indicate the close connection between my research and teaching, and to dispell the notion that these two aspects of my work are in any respect divorced from one another. On the contrary, like the elderly lovers in Eichendorff's poem "Im Abendrot" that Strauss set so beautifully in his "Last Orchestral Song," they go through life "hand in hand."

Teaching Philosophy 1998
I consider Music Theory to be intimately connected with History and Composition, and this philosophical position informs my teaching. For this reason, I constantly make reference to History in my Theory classes. For example, in Modal Counterpoint, I provide an overview of the historical development of contrapuntal style from Notre Dame Organum to Palestrina. In Tonal Counterpoint, I approach Bach’s music from historical, theological, and technical perspectives. Additionally, since my undergraduate degree is in Composition, I find my own compositional experience invaluable in teaching the counterpoint courses. More specifically, in these counterpoint courses - all of which involve writing - I discuss broader compositional issues. My philosophy of teaching analysis, harmony, counterpoint, and ear training is oriented towards developing the capacity to hear music “from the inside out.” In 1995, I called attention to this kind of ‘”hearing from the inside out” in an article published in the Journal of Musicological Research (vol. 15, pp. 285-86) as follows: There is a vital distinction between hearing music from the inside out, which is a truly creative or, in the case of performance, re-creative process and listening to music from the outside in, which is a passive process of reproduction and imitation….Berg, in a 1930 radio interview, refers to this [hearing from the inside out] when he remarks “Not a measure in this music of ours, no matter how complicated its harmonic, rhythmic, and contrapuntal texture, but has been subjected to the sharpest control of the outer and inner ear [my emphasis]." To be sure, all musicians rely upon both modes of hearing, i.e. on both hearing and listening, and Berg’s reference to the outer and inner ear seems to refer to this bi-modality. Yet, in my view, developing the ability to hear ‘from the inside out’ is vitally important for all creative activity in music, i.e. analyzing, composing, performing, and teaching. As I observed in the same article, such ‘hearing….entails, [even] beyond the ability to read ….. a score and reproduce its sound in the aural imagination, a deeper kind of musical perception: hearing….. structural connections over immediate and less immediate spans (“Fernhoeren”, in Wilhelm Fuertwaengler’s term) and, from this perception, intuiting the compositional idea.’ All of my teaching in the Theory core curriculum, as well as in the counterpoint and analysis courses is geared towards developing this kind of ‘inner ear’ hearing. In terms of graduate teaching, I believe that it is essential for M.A. and especially Ph.D. candidates to begin conducting and publishing original research as soon as possible. Ideally, in my view, some of the term papers written for doctoral seminars should be publishable. I myself published several articles that were spin-offs from papers written for doctoral seminars while I was still in graduate school. Since the ability to publish original research in refereed books and journals is increasingly the sine qua non of academic employment and retention, I found this early experience in publication essential to my career. Therefore, in my graduate teaching, I frequently ask my students to work on original projects often involving unpublished materials. For example, in my Schenkerian analysis courses, my students have pursued original research deciphering and explicating Schenker’s unpublished analyses. Because it takes years to conduct and publish research in the best refereed forums, I consider it vital to the long success of our graduate students in both Theory and Musicology that they begin to develop the ability and ‘habit’ of scholarly publication early in their careers. I believe my own extensive experience with publication to be invaluable for my teaching. Since my publications cover considerable ground, I find that the research underpinning these publications constantly informs my lectures. Also, I find it helpful to the morale of graduate students to recognize that the scholarly process - especially of peer review - does not conclude with the doctorate but continues throughout one’s career. In speaking of Josquin des Pres as a teacher, the theorist Gafurius observed that Josquin taught his students what they needed to know by example, quickly and efficiently. This strong endorsement of Josquin as a ‘hands on’ teacher has guided my own teaching for the past nine years. Not only is my teaching style ‘hands on’; it is Socratic: in class, I do not simply lecture to the students; rather, I discuss with them the various aspects of counterpoint and analysis. In addition to a series of challenging homework assignments, in class there is constant, personalized interaction as we jointly work through various counterpoints and analyses. Frequently, we perform student ‘compositions’ in class to hear what we have written, and to identify and correct various problems. I also try to approach teaching with a sense of humor, for nothing is worse than dry, lifeless presentation of material. Surely, Josquin, the composer of El Grillo and many other light-hearted chansons, knew the value of humor for successful teaching, as his own Annual Updates must have disclosed.

Teaching Philosophy 1999
In my 1998 Statement, I emphasized that “my philosophy of teaching analysis, harmony, counterpoint, and ear training is oriented towards developing the capacity to hear music ‘from the inside out.’” Here I wish to call attention to the central role of “ear training” in my teaching philosophy. In my view, ear training encompasses all aspects of teaching since the analysis and writing of music is driven by the ability “to hear” complex and extended relationships. I remain committed to teaching “hearing from the inside out” as I described it in an article published in the Journal of Musicological Research (vol. 15, pp. 285-86). All of my pedagogical activity in the core theory curriculum and in the counterpoint and analysis courses is geared towards developing this kind of “hearing.” In terms of graduate teaching, I believe that it is essential for our M.A. and especially Ph.D. candidates to begin to evolve from students to scholars while in our graduate program. By this, I mean that our graduate students must learn to synthesize and evaluate information rather than simply regurgitate it; evaluative synthesis then becomes the basis for scholarship and contribution to the field. In the fiercely competitive world of academia, this metamorphosis from student to scholar cannot begin too early in graduate school. This semester (fall 1999), I have been working with two graduate students (at the M.A. and Ph.D. levels) on tasks designed to foster precisely this kind of transformation. As I continue to be active in our graduate program, I am working towards the goal that term papers be of sufficiently high quality and originality to form the basis for publication in refereed journals. I consider it vital to the long-term success of our graduate students, and to our graduate program, that students develop the ability and “habit” of scholarly publication early in their careers. Bringing the Reinhard Oppel Collection to North Texas has been helpful not only to my research but to my teaching. Since documents preserved in the Collection shed new light on the pedagogical aspects of analysis, my research has increasingly focused on teaching analysis. My on-going reconstruction of Schenker’s pedagogical approach for my book-in-progress, “The New Teaching:” Heinrich Schenker’s Compositional and Analytical Work with Reinhard Oppel, Hans Weisse, and Wilhelm Furtw ängler 1928-1935, ” is informing my own approach in the classroom, not only in undergraduate and graduate courses on Schenkerian analysis, but also in the core theory program. Both Schenker and Oppel were profoundly interested in the pedagogical aspects of analysis and its connection with learning to hear, as defined above. Recognizing that the learning to hear required time, Schenker remarked that “Thus my teaching, in contrast to more rapid methods, slows the tempo of the educational process. This not only leads the student to genuine knowledge, but also improves the morale of artistic activities in general.” Documents preserved in the Oppel Nachlass disclose that Oppel, a professor at the famous Leipzig Conservatory - planned a manual for teaching ear training from a Schenkerian perspective. A four-page draft of the introduction to this manual preserved in the Oppel Collection describes its purpose: "The present small study endeavors to make a modest contribution to the dissemination of the Schenkerian approach. It seeks to familiarize beginners with the essentials, in so far as this is possible, and above all to get them to the point where they can hear and read music correctly [my emphasis]."

Teaching Philosophy 2001
In my 1998 Statement of Teaching Philosophy, I emphasized that “my philosophy of teaching analysis, harmony, counterpoint, and ear training is oriented towards developing the capacity to hear music ‘from the inside out.’” Here I wish to emphasize that I have been trying to foster a culture in my graduate classes whereby students are able to demonstrate theoretical and analytical perceptions, and not just discuss them “in the abstract.” For example, in my graduate class in the analysis of twentieth century music (Analytical Techniques III MUTH 5370), I have asked students to illustrate their in-class presentations at the piano. This has proven challenging to some students, especially those whose primary instrument is not the piano; some were surprised, even shocked, when I required this kind of “basic” musicianship. However, I find that our graduate students are highly motivated, and that they have recognized the importance of this kind of “practical demonstration” of ideas. All of my pedagogical activity, both in the core theory curriculum and in graduate courses, is geared towards fostering the connection between theory and practice. In terms of graduate teaching, I stand by my earlier statements that it is essential for our M.A. and especially Ph.D. candidates to evolve from students to scholars while in our graduate program. I believe this view is shared by my colleagues, and I continue to work with them and our students, both in the classroom and in one-on-one teaching, and on the Ph.D. Committee, which I now chair, to encourage this transformation. The connection between my own research and teaching activities continues to be close. My research and publications on form have greatly enriched my teaching of the course on form (MUTH 3510), while my work with the music of Bach and Handel in connection Reinhard Oppel’s studies with Schenker has informed my teaching of tonal counterpoint and Schenkerian analysis at the undergraduate and graduate levels (MUTH 4370, MUTH 5740, MUTH 3420, and MUTH 5400). My publication and supporting research on such major twentieth-century figures as Schoenberg, Strauss, Mahler, Sibelius, and Shostakovich is absolutely essential to my teaching of the graduate seminars on twentieth-century music (MUTH 5370) and special topics (MUTH 6680).

Teaching Philosophy 2002
In my 1998 Statement of Teaching Philosophy, I emphasized that “my philosophy of teaching analysis, harmony, counterpoint, and ear training is oriented towards developing the capacity to hear music ‘from the inside out.’” Here, I would like to call attention to a significant development in my teaching of counterpoint that is intended to foster this kind of inner hearing. Even in a class with 15 students, I have played, sung, and critiqued all assignments in class with the students. I have found that this approach has resulted in students completing their homework on time for class (!), and has enabled them to achieve a high level of contrapuntal skill in a remarkably short time. For example, in my graduate Invertible Counterpoint and Fugue class this past semester (2002), all students completed four-voice fugues of approximately 70 measures featuring a complete exposition, middle entries, multiple episodes, stretti, augmentation, pedal point, and other fugal techniques. These fugues were type-set in Finale and the computer play-back recorded on CD. In terms of graduate teaching, I continue to stand by my earlier statements that it is essential for our M.A. and especially Ph.D. candidates to evolve from students to scholars while in our graduate program. I believe this view is shared by my colleagues, and I continue to work with them and our students, both in the classroom and in one-on-one teaching, and on the Ph.D. Committee, which I chaired, to encourage this transformation. My own publication and supporting research on such major twentieth-century figures as Schoenberg, Strauss, Mahler, Sibelius, and Shostakovich is absolutely essential to my teaching of the graduate seminars on twentieth-century music (MUTH 5370) and special topics (MUTH 6680).

Teaching Philosophy 2003
From Spring 1992 to the present (December 2003), I have taught four courses for the first time: MUTH-2500 (Theory IV), MUMH-4800 (Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Music in Germany), MUTH-5360 (Analytical Techniques II, 1700-1900), and MUTH-5355 (Analytical Techniques I, Ars antiqua-1700). Thus, I have now taught all four semesters in the Core Theory Program (Theories I-IV) and all three Analytical Techniques courses comprising the Ars antiqua to the 20th Century (Analytical Techniques I-III). Additionally, I have taught both in the history and theory areas. In my counterpoint classes, both 16th- and 18th-century, I have continued to employ the approach of “the joint correcting of assignments.” This is to say, I ask the students to photocopy their exercises so that they can be distributed, performed and critiqued in class. Among the essential skills for developing expertise in counterpoint is not only generating counterpoint per se but also critiquing it. In other words, the students must learn not only to think creatively within given constraints but, in addition, develop the ability think critically, i.e., develop an alertness to errors and weakness in counterpoint. By asking the students to critique their own work in class, under my careful supervision and guidance, of course, I have found that they quickly develop the kind of “radar” for effective error detection, and, ultimately, the self-criticism, which is necessary to write excellent counterpoint. I believe that, over the past two years, I have developed into a more effective teacher of counterpoint. From my current perspective, I am especially pleased with the outcome of Analytical Techniques I, which I taught in the Fall of 2003. In this class, we covered not only the “standard” topics relevant to so-called “Early Music” such as the discussion of mode and cadence, but also the tonal and rhythmic structures of the music. Beginning with the Notre Dame Polyphony of Perotin and concluding with Monteverdi’s Missa “In Illo Tempore,” we developed a methodology for analyzing prolongation of the various sonorities employed in this repertoire. I was struck by how quickly the graduate students in this course. some whom had little or no background in linear analysis, were able to assimilate the approach. The final in-class presentations and resulting papers show considerable analytical sophistication. In my course on “Nazism, Judaism, and the Politics of Classical Music in Germany 1933-1945” (my contribution to the Jewish Studies Program at UNT) we examined the music of a few Jewish composers who perished in the Holocaust. The most distinguished of these, Viktor Ullmann (1898-1944), received the most attention. Ullmann was deported to the “model” concentration camp Theriesienstadt, and from there to Auschwitz where, along with many other musicians, he was gassed on October 18, 1944. While in Theriesienstadt, Ullmann miraculously continued to compose; his masterpiece, the opera Der Kaiser von Atlantis (1943), which even went into rehearsal in the camp, although its production was ultimately banned by the Nazi authorities, provided the main focus for the first essay: I asked the students to write their first paper on various aspects of Der Kaiser. In the second part of the course, we devoted considerable time and effort to explicating the Nazis’ ideology of music and how it evolved naturally from Wagner’s writings and operas. Since most of the students had no knowledge of Wagner whatsoever (even the music students!), we studied parts of the Ring - Das Rheingold, Siegfried, and Goetterdaemmerung - and Parsifal paying particular attention to Wagner’s anti-Semitic caricatures of his villains. We also did quite a bit of reading of the primary and secondary literature about this controversial topic, i.e., whether Wagner’s anti-Semitic theories influenced his music dramas. For the final essay, the students framed their own topics related to the title of the course and produced papers on them. As I had expected, the student population was highly mixed: some students had few musical skills while others were seasoned musicians. As a result of this diversity of backgrounds, the quality of the student work varied considerably. I should mention that two colleagues, Profs. Frank Heidlberger and David Schwarz, attended a number of classes and gave guest presentations from different perspectives, both of which made a strong impression. Having taught the course once - and thus having gained a sense of what works and what does not in this context - I feel better prepared to tackle this difficult topic the next time around; indeed, I am looking forward to the opportunity to teach this class again.

Teaching Philosophy 2005
During the academic year 2004, I served as the major professor for a Master’s Thesis in Music Theory by William Pavlak, “The Genesis and Structure of Sibelius’s Seventh Symphony.” Pavlak’s Thesis served as the basis for the above-mentioned performance by the Fort Worth Symphony at the Sibelius Symposium and a recording by the Lahti Symphony under Osmo Vaenska for BIS records. In 2005, I was the major professor for Rene Perez’s Master’s Thesis on Bach’s Mass in B minor. I am continuing to work with Michael Lively as the major professor for his Ph.D. Thesis in Music Theory on late Beethoven String Quartets, Colin Davis as the major professor for his Master’s Thesis in Music Theory on Allen Pettersson’s Fifth Symphony, and Christine Armendarez’s Master’s Thesis on the Choral Music Tradition at St. Olaf’s College in Minnesota. Colin Davis’s reconstruction of the first, 1896 version of Sibelius’s Lemminkainen Suite, which was performed by the Sibelius Festival Orchestra at UNT, was also recorded by the Lahti Symphony under Osmo Vaenska for BIS records. Doctoral student Jenifer Sadoff, currently in Vienna as a Fulbright Scholar conducting research for her doctoral dissertation on the genesis of Heinrich Schenker’s Free Composition, is also editing The Journal of Schenkerian Studies under my supervision and that of Prof. Slottow. During the fall semester of 2005, I taught three graduate courses in Music Theory in the College of Music at Hanyang University, two at the doctoral level, and one at the masters level. South Korea is a modern, affluent country, and its education system is largely Westernized. As a consequence of this Westernization, the student population that I served had a fairly solid background in traditional music theory, and some even had basic knowledge of elementary set theory and Schenkerian analytical concepts. Nevertheless, my teaching assignment posed major challenges from multiple perspectives. In the beginning, there was “cultural and linguistic shock.” While younger Koreans are increasingly exposed to English-speaking culture, nevertheless making English the language of instruction posed considerable challenges, especially at the outset. Great patience was required on the parts of both teacher and students: I had to speak slowly and clearly, and frequently had to rephrase and repeat myself in order to be comprehensible. In the beginning, the students were generally extremely shy and hesitant to respond to questions, which complicated the teaching process. This “shyness” was both culturally conditioned and a consequence of the language problem. Nevertheless, as the semester progressed, teacher and students working together managed to overcome both the linguistic and cultural barriers, this process of “overcoming” being facilitated by the nature of the subject, namely music theory, which depends less on verbal skills and more on non-verbal musical cognition. Let me briefly describe course content and methodologies: 1) Schenker's Analytical Methods - CMU718 (doctoral course) This course on Schenkerian Analysis was offered for doctoral students. Most students, who were already fairly advanced in some other areas of Music Theory, already had some background in Schenkerian theory that they picked up here and there. Indeed, the student population was a mix of students in the doctoral program in Music Theory at Hanyang (including a number of lecturers at other universities), and also students from other schools, primarily from the Seoul National University. We began with “simple” pieces like the theme from Mozart’s Sonata in A major K. 331, the first and second subjects of Mozart’s Sonata in C major, K. 545, and the theme from Beethoven’s Sonata in Ab major, Op. 26, and the Chopin Preludes Op. 28 in C major and E minor. From there we progressed to more ambitious pieces, including the first movement of Beethoven’s “Moonlight” Sonata Op. 27, No. 2, and the second movement of Op. 90. In preparation for Professor Burkhart’s Lecture on December 1 (“Prototypes of Sonata Form”), we looked at Beethoven’s Op. 10, No. 1, first movement. Since the students in this class were mature musicians, we also studied some much larger and more complicated pieces. In particular, we focused on the Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major (in its entirety) and No. 5 in D major (the first movement). As a final project, I asked the students to analyze Beethoven’s Sonata in F major, Op. 10, No. 2, first movement. 2) Explaining Music (music analysis) - CMU724 (masters-level class) This class was mainly populated by pianists and music historians, with only two theory students out of about eleven. The latter were - as one might expect - the strongest in theory; however, the pianists in the class included some excellent sight-readers and good all-around musicians, which enabled them to assimilate analytical skills and methodologies remarkably quickly. In this analysis class, we focused on various analytical methodologies and approaches, including traditional harmonic (i.e. Roman numeral) analysis, Schenkerian analysis and elementary set theory, as ways of analyzing music from the Classical period through the Second Viennese School. We began by looking at late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century songs by Mahler and Strauss to arrive at a basic terminology for harmonic and voice leading techniques. By undertaking a conventional harmonic analysis of the song by Mahler (Nun seh’ ich wohl from the Kindertotenlieder), and the Strauss Lieder, Sehnsucht, Traum durch die Daemmerung, and Freundliche Vision, we were able to overcome initial linguistic, terminological, and analytical challenges. From there, we moved forward historically into the twentieth-century repertoire to study Berg’s Lieder Op. 2, Nos. 1-3, which are that composer’s last tonal compositions. In order to analyze these works, and to prepare for Allen Forte’s lectures in the “Music Theory Festival,” we explored elementary set theory (as originally developed by Allen Forte). We also began, in a very preliminary way, to investigate the development of serial composition by looking at the 1925 setting of Berg’s Schliesse mir die Augen beide, his first serial composition. At this juncture (early October), I decided to jump back into the tonal repertoire and teach the basics of Schenkerian analysis. This was necessary in order to expose the students to contemporary approaches to tonal music, and also to prepare for the Schenker-oriented presentations by Forte and Burkhart in the “Theory Festival.” Specifically, in preparation for the lecture on Sonata Form by Professor Burkhart, we spent considerable time and effort on first movement of Beethoven’s Sonata Op. 10, No. 1 in C minor. 3) Doctoral seminar on twentieth-century music. Music Analysis 2 (20th century music analysis) - COP913 (doctoral-level class) The student population in this course was essentially the same as in the course on Schenker’s analytical methods. We reviewed basic set theory (with which the majority of students were already familiar), and also began to investigate the linear aspects of twentieth-century music, a completely new topic for all students. We studied Berg's Op. 2 songs, nos. 1, 2, and 3, Webern's Op. 16 Cannons, no. 1, Christus factus est, compared it with Bruckner’s setting of the same text. By Berg, we analyzed the fifth song of his Altenberglieder, Op. 4, with special emphasis on Berg’s use of tropes. We explored a number of piano pieces by Schoenberg, the Op. 11, no. 1, the Gavotte from the Op. 25, Op. 33a, tracing his path from “free atonality” to serial composition. Additionally, to gain insight into the evolution of this composer’s development of his serial technique, we analyzed the early serial canon Op. 27, No. 1 “Unentrinnbar.” In the middle of November, in preparation for Professor Burkhart’s lectures, which involve advanced Schenkerian analysis, we looked through a large-scale work by Brahms, namely his Tragic Overture, from a Schenkerian perspective. Also, in connection with Professor Burkhart’s lecture on November 30 (“Exploring Non-Tonic Openings [with emphasis on Brahms]”), I discussed the Finale of the Third Symphony by Brahms, and also my ideas about its possible connection with the first and seventh movements of the German Requiem. During the first two weeks of November, we worked intensively on Schoenberg’s A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46, in order to gain insight into that composer’s mature serial technique. I have assigned a term paper on this work.

Teaching Philosophy 2006
In 2006, I adopted three new teaching strategies in my teaching of graduate seminars and both undergraduate and graduate Schenkerian Analysis. In the past, when I assigned paper topics in seminars and courses, I would simply collect the papers, grade them, and return them to the students with their grade and my corrections. I found that students would look at the grade, briefly look at the comments and put the paper aside. To create a much more interactive, and hopefully valuable, learning experience, I adopted a new strategy in my graduate seminar MUTH 6680 this past fall semester, in which I assigned four papers. In this class, instead of simply correcting the papers, I read and returned them with comments but without a grade. We discussed each paper in class, its strengths and weaknesses, and then the students undertook revisions bearing in mind both the comments and the class discussion of the papers. Only once I found the papers to be on a sufficiently high level, both in terms of content and style, did I assign a grade. The resulting work, I believe, is much stronger since the students have had the opportunity to reflect and improve upon their work, as can be seen, I hope, in the papers. Of course, this “revisional” approach only works in small classes, but I believe that it holds promise for intensifying the interaction between professor and student and his or her peers, and allows the student to deepen his or her understanding of the topic. I also taught the Introduction to Schenkerian Analysis MUTH 4370 (Fall 2006) in a new way. In previous years, I would ask the students to prepare an analytical graph and photocopy it for distribution to the class. However, my general practice in class was to look at the student analyses rather briefly in order to concentrate on presenting my own graph. This past semester, once the students had been introduced to basic graphing techniques, I adopted a somewhat different pedagogical strategy. Instead of focusing classes on my own analysis, I spent the majority of class time discussing the student analyses in considerable depth, making a few points regarding possible mistakes, and then asking the students to revise their graphs, which they would do for the next class. Then the process would be repeated, with minimal graphing by me on the board, until the student graphs were acceptable. As with the revision of essays discussed above, I found that by giving the work of each student a careful, in-depth critique in class, and the opportunity to rethink and revise, overall student comprehension and knowledge increased exponentially: much more rapidly than if I showed the students how it should be done and left it at that. In my view, I was able to progress much further than in previous years, which is demonstrated by the sophistication of some of the student final projects on the second movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata Op. 90. In my teaching of Analytical Techniques II (MUTH 5360) in the second Summer Session, I experimented with in-class use of Web resources. In past years, I simply asked the students to look up certain items on their own. This last time I taught the course, I found the Web to be an invaluable aid to lecturing; using the computer and projector in the classroom, it was possible to call up information about the various composers, artists, and topics under discussion, vividly illustrating my comments with resources available on the Web. In this statement of “teaching philosophy,” I wish to emphasize the importance that I attach to “directed learning.” What I mean by this term is assigning research topics that, while allowing the individual student a certain amount of freedom and room for maneuver, nevertheless give him or her a clear sense of direction. For example, in my Seminar on Strauss and Mahler (MUTH 6680), I assigned four topics: 1) Explore the Connection between the Adagietto and the Finale in Mahler’s Fifth Symphony; 2) Trace the “Elektra chord” through Strauss’s Opera; 3) Discuss the role of C in the Third Act of Strauss’s Die Frau ohne Schatten; 4) Examine the Possibility of Sonata Form in the First Part of Mahler’s Eighth Symphony. Each of these topics is carefully designed so as to compel the student to engage with large-scale compositions, but by focusing on a specific aspect of them, also provide a clear direction. Through this kind of directed assignment, I hope to hone not only music analytical ability, but also research and writing skills. As mentioned above, I corrected and commented on different versions of the responses to these topics; my goal was not to arrive at some kind of “right answer,” but rather to help the students to achieve a certain level of sophistication and originality in their responses. It is my belief that assessment of pedagogical effectiveness is less to measured by reviewing syllabi than by considering portfolios of student work. In my classes, the syllabus is intended to be more of a business arrangement or even contract than a purveyor of content. Frequently, I have had to adjust my expectations bearing in mind the preparation, or lack thereof, of the students. For example, in MUTH 5400 18th Century Counterpoint (doctoral-level class) that I taught in the summer, since the class was less well prepared for work in tonal counterpoint, we were compelled to concentrate on laying a strong foundation in counterpoint per se rather than writing fugues. In other years with better prepared students, I was able to concentrate on fugal technique. In any event, I am a firm believer in the notion that “the proof is in the pudding” and, for this reason, I have decided to include portfolios of student work comprising essays, analytical graphs, and complete sequences of counterpoint exercises.

Teaching Philosopy 2007
The mentoring of graduate students in Music Theory is a long-term project involving recruitment, training and retention, and ultimate graduation and job placement of students. I currently have two doctoral students who are ABD and writing their dissertations under me as the primary (Category III) professor (Jennifer Sadoff Auerbach and Michael Lively), three students who are currently in the doctoral program and may continue to work extensively with me on their doctoral theses (Rene Perez-Torres, Colin Davis, and Stefan Treber), and two undergraduate students who wrote their Senior Projects under my supervision (Taylor Simms and Sarah Campbell). In terms of placement, Jennifer Sadoff-Auerbach currently is a Visiting Assistant Professor at Austin College. I would like to focus on my work as a teacher, since I believe that an important measure of teaching effectiveness is the ultimate success of one's students. Over the course of the past seventeen years of professional teaching at Connecticut College and UNT, I have taught students at all levels of Music Theory from beginners to doctoral students. I have had the privilege of working with a number of gifted students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. At the graduate level at UNT, I have supervised master's theses and doctoral dissertations, and frequently served as second and third reader as well. In this report, I will focus on students for whom I was the primary reader. Matt Shea was one of my first undergraduate students at Connecticut College before he went on to graduate study at Yale. Matt now teaches as an Assistant Professor at the University of Rochester and the Eastman School of Music. I met him recently at the 2007 National Meeting of the SMT, and he told me that he still relies extensively on my instruction in teaching undergraduates at those institutions. Here at UNT I am producing students who I feel confident will go on to have careers. I might mention Jennifer Sadoff-Auerbach again, who won a Fulbright to spend last year in Vienna. Jennifer is working on a dissertation on the genesis of Heinrich Schenker's Free Composition. I am especially proud of Ren Perez Torres' master's thesis, "Bach's Mass in B minor: an analytical study of parody movements and their function in the large-scale architectural design of the mass," which was completed in 2006. Ren is now in the doctoral program at UNT; I am confident that when he returns to Mexico, he will become one of that country's foremost music theorists. He has already been offered a university position in Mexico, but I wished him to stay in the US until he completed most of his doctoral dissertation. I have worked intensively with a number of doctoral students who are primarily performers but have a strong interest in analysis. For example, I supervised the doctoral dissertation of a Hungarian pianist at UNT, Emke Ujj-Hilliard. Her thesis "An analysis of the genesis of motive, rhythm, and pitch in the first movement of the Sonata for two pianos and percussion by Bla Bartk" combines analysis with an interest in compositional genesis and interpretation, and performance. Another student, Christina Armanderez, whose primary focus is conducting, wrote a fascinating master's thesis on "The influence of Fredrik Melius Christiansen on six Minnesota conductor-composers" completed in 2006. Again, her work uses analysis as a way of enriching performance and exploring a special body of choral-music literature. A series of interviews with the composers active in this tradition also enriched her study. Colin Davis, currently editor of the Journal of Schenkerian Studies, reconstructed the first, 1896 version of Sibelius's Lemminkainen Suite, which was performed by the Sibelius Festival Orchestra at UNT in 2005, and was also recorded by the Lahti Symphony under Osmo Vaenska for BIS records with Davis contributing a program note on his reconstruction. He has completed his master's thesis on the Fifth Symphony of the Swedish composer Allen Pettersson under my supervision in 2007. It should be available on line in a few weeks.The theses and dissertations by the above-mentioned students are all posted on-line as PDFs by the UNT library under their names as authors. During the fall semester of 2005, under the auspices of the Fulbright Program, I taught three graduate courses in Music Theory at a Korean university, two at the doctoral level, and one at the masters level. One of my former doctoral students in Korea, has come to UNT to continue to work with me here in our doctoral program in 2008. During the fall semester of 2007, I taught a new course (for me) in "Harmonic Analysis" MUTH 3520-001 CRE 9842 in which we studied harmony by analyzing music by Bach, Beethoven, and Bruckner (keyboard and symphonic music). Students wrote papers on the "Crucifixus" from Bach's Mass in B Minor and Beethoven's Piano Sonata Op. 10 No. 2, first movement, both of which contain unusual and interesting harmonic procedures. I gave a final examination in which students demonstrated their ability to analyze harmony in the introduction and development section of Beethoven's Fourth Symphony. I wanted to give this topic careful consideration this year (2007) because I have made some fundamental changes in my approach to teaching, changes which I believe have made me somewhat less popular than before. However, I feel that these changes are necessary for a variety of reasons, even if they may result in lower numbers in student evaluations. In the past, when I assigned papers, both prose and musical assignments (i.e., counterpoint exercises), I used to read them through once, determine what I believed was the best grade, and return them. The vast majority of essays were poorly written, badly organized, and inadequately researched; the counterpoint exercises would be riddled with errors. The students would look at the grade, glance at the corrections, and learn very little. The evidence for "lack of learning" was that subsequent papers, whether prose or music, would be full of similar mistakes. To counter this continuous recycling of errors, and also the mistaken impression on the part of some students that their work was truly acceptable if put under an "objective" critical lens, for the past year-and-a-half, I have decided to assign many "Rs," i.e., "revise and resubmit for a grade," with regard to both counterpoint exercises and essay questions. This procedure clearly irritates some students because they have to revisit their work and incorporate a host of corrections, and it also considerably slows down my whole process of giving assignments and grading them; but I have come to believe that, in spite of the associated problems, this approach is successful in one crucial respect: some students do in fact learn how to produce "acceptable" work. I have asked all students to submit portfolios at the end of the semester containing their corrected assignments for a final assessment of their grade. In my view, a university teacher has to keep an eye on "objective" standards; in practice, some form of objectivity means that one should be cognizant of how the work of our students compares with that of students at peer and superior institutions. At various conferences, and most notably the SMT and AMS, but also in other contexts like the international conferences I have attended over the past few years (IMS, European Analysis Symposium, and the Strauss Symposium at Magdalen College, Oxford, for example), I have carefully observed the performance of graduate students from other universities and colleges. From observations of the quality of work produced by the students from other institutions, I have gained an impression of the level of accomplishment and facility generally expected in the national and international arenas, and I have tried to get my own students to a point where they are at least within striking distance of these frequently much higher standards. This is a difficult task given the fact that UNT cannot be as selective in its admissions; nevertheless, I do believe (and I am working hard to try to achieve this result) that the stronger students at UNT, both the undergraduate and graduate levels, are indeed capable of doing commensurate work. So, my goal for the immediate future is to continue to develop and refine this pedagogical approach of requesting revision (multiple times if necessary) in order to achieve "real learning." While some students who value a more highschool-like approach gravitate in other directions, the fact that I have to turn away students who wish to do special problems with me, and that I am currently supervising a significant number of theses and dissertations, demonstrates that some students seem to appreciate my still-developing approach.

Related Links:

Teaching Philosopy 2008
Over the past two years, I have given teaching careful consideration since I have made some fundamental changes in my approach to teaching. I am aware that these changes have “brought down my numbers” in the student evaluations from past years, but also I am convinced that they have improved the quality of work done under my tutelage. In Spring 2007, my overall mean was 1.98, in Fall 2007, it was 2.55; in the Summer 2008, it was 2.25. When I look back through my student evaluations from approximately five years ago, for example, Fall 2002 and Spring 2003, it was 1.47 and 1.45 respectively. In my view, I have not suddenly become a poor teacher; rather, because I am teaching in a more unconventional way than in the past, as I shall explain below, the questions on the questionnaire do not accurately reflect my new approach. And while the level of student satisfaction has gone down, the level of student performance has increased. I can verify this assertion because I have kept an archive copy of all student work since I began teaching at UNT in 1998. I did not teach during the Spring 2008, since I was on “Faculty Development Leave;” therefore, it is probably a bit too soon to draw any conclusions. In 2007, I felt it necessary to make some changes in my teaching approach for a variety of reasons, even if they result in lower numbers in student evaluations. In the past, when I assigned papers, both prose and musical assignments (i.e., counterpoint exercises), I used to read them through once, determine what I believed was the best grade, and return them. The vast majority of essays were poorly written, badly organized, and inadequately researched; the counterpoint exercises would be riddled with errors. Most UNT students simply could not write good English prose about music. When I would return their papers, the students would look at the grade, glance at the corrections (if that), and learn very little. The evidence for “lack of learning” was that subsequent papers, whether prose or music, would be full of similar mistakes. To counter this “recycling of errors,” and also the mistaken impression on the part of some students that their work was truly acceptable if put under an “objective” critical lens, I decided to assign many “Rs,” i.e., “revise and resubmit for a grade,” with regard to both counterpoint exercises and essay questions. This procedure irritates some students because they have to revisit their work and incorporate a host of corrections, and it also considerably slows down the whole process of giving assignments and grading them. The result is that some students do not know what their final grade will be until late in the semester, and they do not like it. I have come to believe that, in spite of the associated problems, this approach is successful in one crucial respect: some students do in fact learn how to produce “acceptable” work; by acceptable, I mean work that would not be embarrassing to show to professors outside of UNT. I have asked all students to submit portfolios at the end of the semester containing their corrected assignments for a final assessment of their grade and, as mentioned above, I have archived these portfolios. Reviewing some of the verbal comments in the student evaluations, I notice that some students object to the listening examinations that I have instituted in the past two years as being far too extensive. I have found that most of our students do very poorly on these tests; indeed, few can pass them. There are two problems: 1) our students at all levels are unfamiliar with the literature of Classical music, and 2) they have trouble remembering the music they hear, in part because many of them have little score-reading ability and keyboard skills. But this deficient knowledge of standard repertoire is serious; and if it is unaddressed, it slows students down at the upper levels of the masters and doctoral programs because they have great difficulty passing examinations that require a certain degree of familiarity with the literature. Therefore, I intend to keep instituting listening tests. In my view, a university professer must keep an eye on “objective” standards; in practice, some form of objectivity means that one should be cognizant of how the work of our students compares with that of students at peer and superior institutions, not just internally at UNT’s College of Music. At various conferences, and most notably the National SMT and AMS meetings, but also in other contexts like the international conferences I have attended over the past few years (IMS, European Analysis Symposium, and the Strauss Symposium at Magdalen College, Oxford, for example), I have carefully observed the performance of graduate students from other universities and colleges. As mentioned above, I counseled young scholars as part of the National SMT Mentoring Committee in Nashville in November 2008, which provided an excellent opportunity to examine the preparation of graduate students from other US and foreign institutions in some depth. By observing the quality of work produced by the students from other institutions, I gained an impression of the level of accomplishment and facility generally expected in the national and international arenas, and I have tried to get my own students to a point where they are at least within striking distance of these frequently much higher standards. This is a difficult task given the fact that UNT cannot be as selective in its admissions nor as generous with scholarships as higher-ranked schools; nevertheless, I do believe, and I am working hard to try to achieve this result, that the stronger students at UNT, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels, are indeed capable of doing commensurate work. So, my goal for the immediate future is to continue to develop and refine my pedagogical approach of requesting revision (multiple times if necessary) in order to achieve “real learning.” While some students who value a more regimented approach naturally will, and do, gravitate in other directions, the fact that I still have to turn away students who wish to do special problems with me, and that I am currently supervising a significant number of theses and dissertations, demonstrates that there are students at UNT who appreciate my still-developing teaching approach. I should note that I have been chosen as the “doctor father” (dissertation advisor), by six students in the Doctoral Program in Music Theory (Jennifer Sadoff Auerbach, Michael Lively, Colin Davis, René Perez, Bradley Evans, and JongKyun Kim), and major professor by two masters students (Stefan Treber, Jason Patterson), and that I also supervised an Honors Student’s undergraduate paper this past semester (Cara Stroud). I should also note that of the doctoral students listed above, two (Sadoff Auerbach and Lively) will complete their dissertations this year, and two will be presenting papers at the Texas Society for Music Theory this week (Sadoff Auerbach and Perez).

toggle toggle Mentoring/Advising
Duration (YYYY - YYYY or Present)Student NameClassificationTypeProject/Thesis/Dissertation
2010Jason PattersonMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/AdvisingThe Adagio of Mahler's Ninth Symphony: A Schenkerian Analysis and Examination of the Farewell Story - completed
2010Stefan TreberMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/Advising"A Schenkerian Analysis of Beethoven's E Minor Piano Sonata, Opus 90" http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28486/
2010René Perez TorresDoctoral Student, ABDGraduate Mentoring/AdvisingThe 34 Canciones Hispanoamericanas para canto y piano by Gualterio Armando: A Schenkerian view of the Hispano-American soul - in progress
2010Colin DavisDoctoral Student, ABDGraduate Mentoring/AdvisingFacets of Polyphonic Harmony in Ferruccio Busoni's Orchestral Elegies - in progress
2010Michael LivelyDoctoral Student, Ph.D. awardedGraduate Mentoring/Advising"Non-Linear and Multi-Linear Time in Beethoven's Opus 127: An Analytical Study of Structural Voice Leading in the 'Krakow' Sketch Materials" - http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31540/
2009Jennifer Sadoff AuerbachDoctoral Student, Ph.D. awardedGraduate Mentoring/Advising“Drafts, Page Proofs, and Revisions of Schenker’s Der freie Satz: The Collection at the Austrian National Library and Schenker’s Generative Process” http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9936/
2007Jongkyun KimMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/Advising"The Fundamental Unity in Brahm's Horn Trio, Op. 40," http://digital.library.unt.edu/permalink/meta-dc-3953:1
2007Colin DavisMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/Advising"Toward a unified whole, Allan Pettersson's Symphony no. 5," http://digital.library.unt.edu/permalink/meta-dc-3983:1
2006Christina ArmanderezMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/Advising“The influence of Fredrik Melius Christiansen on six Minnesota conductor-composers," http://iii.library.unt.edu/search/X?SEARCH=Armendarez&searchscope=12&SORT=D
2006René Perez TorresMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/Advising“Bach's Mass in B minor: an analytical study of parody movements and their function in the large-scale architectural design of the mass,” http://www.unt.edu/etd/all/Dec2005/Open/perez_torres_rene/thesis.pdf
2004William PavlakMasters StudentGraduate Mentoring/Advising"Sibelius's Seventh Symphony: Genesis, Design, Structure, and Meaning,http://digital.library.unt.edu/permalink/meta-dc-4495:1"
2004Emöke Ujj-HilliardDoctoral Student, DMA awardedGraduate Mentoring/Advising“An analysis of the genesis of motive, rhythm, and pitch in the first movement of the Sonata for two pianos and percussion by Béla Bartók," http://www.unt.edu/etd/all/May2004/ujj-hilliard_emoke/dissertation.pdf
toggle toggle Committees
Duration (YYYY - YYYY or Present)CommitteePositionClassification
2008-PresentLecture CommitteeMemberDivision of History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology
2006-PresentGraduate Academic Degree CommitteeMemberDivision of History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology
2002-PresentPersonnel Affairs CommitteeMemberDivision of History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology
1999-PresentSenate Faculty Research CommitteeMemberUniversity Committees and Councils
2010-2011Search Committee for PresidentMemberUniversity of North Texas
2007-2008National Society of Music Theory’s Committee on Disability (2007-2008).MemberNational Society for Music Theory
2007-2008Professional Development Committee of the National Society of Music Theory advising young scholars entering the field (2007-2008).Advisor to young scholarsNational Society for Music Theory
2006-2008Lecture CommitteeChairDivision of History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology
2001-2002Ph.D. CommitteeChairDivision of History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology
1999-2002Academic Affairs CommitteeMemberUniversity Committees and Councils
1999Committee on the Status of WomenMemberUniversity Committees and Councils
toggle toggle Honors and Recognitions
YearTitleHonoring Organization
2006Congressional CitationCongress of the United States of America
1982The Graduate Award at Queens College, 1982 (the highest award to graduating masters in all faculties at Queens College CUNY)Queens College of the City University of New York
toggle toggle Professional Community Engagement
YearOrganizationRoleType of Service
1998-2001Dallas Symphony Orchestra Outreach ProgramDelivered pre-concert lectures for three seasons on Bruckner’s Sixth and Ninth Symphonies, Mahler’s Fourth Symphony, and Sibelius’s Third Symphony for the Dallas Symphony Orchestra pre-concert lecture series.Lecturing
toggle toggle Renowned Teachers
Carl E. Schachter
Queens College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, the Juilliard School and the Mannes College of Music

Edward C. Laufer
Faculty of Music, the University of Toronto

Saul Novack
Queens College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York

Allen Forte
Yale Department of Music

toggle toggle Additional Information
Center for Schenkerian Studies
In 2000, Dr. Timothy Jackson established the Center for Schenkerian Studies at the College of Music, UNT. The Center, which he co-directs with Dr. Stephen Slottow, Associate Professor of Music Theory, serves as the catalyst for new teaching and research initiatives in music theory and history within the Division of Music History, Theory, and Ethnomusicology in the College of Music at the University of North Texas. Specifically, its teaching component sponsors guest lectures, visiting professorships, seminars, symposia, and concerts. While Schenkerian theory provides a focus for its activities, the Center sponsors research, teaching activities, and events in a wide range of other areas of music theory, the history of music theory, and the history of musical culture in pre-World War II Austria and Germany. The Center supports courses in basic and advanced Schenkerian analysis, the relationship of analysis to performance, and the music of specific composers. It sponsors guest lectures bringing to campus renowned theorists and musicologists, whose specialties fall under the umbrella of the Center’s interests. Through Fulbright Exchanges and other venues, it supports visiting scholars for longer residences. To date, the Center has sponsored residences by distinguished Schenkerian scholars William Drabkin, Roger Kamien, Edward Laufer, Allen Forte, Charles Burkhart, and Carl Schachter (Spring Semester, 2010).
The Center's research component fosters cutting-edge research in the field of music theory in general, and specifically in Schenkerian analysis, with a special focus on documents preserved in the Reinhard Oppel, Josef Knettel, and Saul Novack Memorial Collections and their connection with Schenker's legacy. The Center's scholarly activities include publishing a journal, and organizing public performances, recordings, and editions of music. The Journal of Schenkerian Studies, published under the aegis of the Center, disseminates articles and reports related to the Center's activities. As of 2010, the journal will be published by UNT Press and distributed by A & M Press.

Our vision for the Center is to create an internationally recognized area of expertise in Schenkerian theory at UNT associated with the collections of Schenkerian documents in the Collections. The Center enriches the UNT undergraduate and graduate Theory Program with special course offerings and contributes to the core Theory Program, enhancing the teaching and research profile of the College of Music, and the university as a whole.

© 2015 University of North Texas | P.O. Box 311277 Denton, Texas 76203-1277 | Phone: (940) 565-2000 | Contact Web Team
Important Disclaimer: The responsibility for the accuracy of the information contained on these pages lies with the authors and user providing such information.